Saturday, September 30, 2017

September - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan










September 1st Week

Industrial Engineering Optimization

Mathematical optimization was used by F.W. Taylor. As operations research was developed and more optimization techniques were developed, industrial engineers advocated the use of them in companies to improve productivity, reduce costs, and increase profits. All industrial engineering redesigns are to be optimized and industrial engineers use various optimization techniques to optimize their engineering redesigns to increase productivity.

Complete Course in OR/Optimization -  http://orms.pef.czu.cz/

1

Operations Research - An Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers

PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH
(from the perspective of an industrial engineer)
(From Maynard's Industrial Engineering Handbook, 5th Edition, pp. 11.27-11.44)
Jayant Rajgopal (From Rajgopal's website)
http://www.pitt.edu/~jrclass/or/or-intro.html

2

What is mathematical programming?
http://coral.ie.lehigh.edu/~ted/files/ie316/lectures/Lecture1.pdf
Examples of Mathematical Programming.
http://coral.ie.lehigh.edu/~ted/files/ie316/lectures/Lecture2.pdf

3

Simplex Method
http://mat.gsia.cmu.edu/classes/QUANT/NOTES/chap7.pdf

4.  Transportation Problem
http://orms.pef.czu.cz/text/transProblem.html

5. Queing Models
http://orms.pef.czu.cz/text/QueTeory/QueuingModels.html


September 2nd  Week


8. Simulation
http://orms.pef.czu.cz/text/NolinearProgramming/simulation.html


9. An Overview of Optimization Techniques for CNC Milling Machine
https://www.alliedjournals.com/download_data/IJEMS_V1IS50005.pdf

10. New Technology and Optimization of Mobile Phone Battery
https://theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/110646/Liu%20Jian_Zhang%20Yixian.pdf?sequence=1

11. Combustion Optimization in PF Boilers
http://www.eecpowerindia.com/codelibrary/ckeditor/ckfinder/userfiles/files/Session%201%20Combustion%20and%20Optimisation%20in%20coal%20fired%20boilers_KBP_17_09_2013.pdf

12. Application of Optimization Techniques in the Power System Control
https://uni-obuda.hu/journal/Kadar_43.pdf

September Third Week


Industrial Engineering Statistics


F.W. Taylor himself advocated maintaining of records and data for decision making. The other industrial engineering pioneers also promoted record keeping and data analysis. As sampling based  decision making became more robust, industrial engineers promoted it as a productivity improvement initiative and imperative. One of the prominent areas of application is statistical quality control. Now six sigma, a statistics based technique is being promoted by the IE profession.

15.  Basics of Statistics
http://bobhall.tamu.edu/FiniteMath/Module8/Introduction.html



16.  Statistical Process Control
http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/pmc/section1/pmc12.htm
http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/pmc/section3/pmc3.htm

Evaluation Improvement of Production Productivity Performance using Statistical Process Control, Overall Equipment Efficiency, and Autonomous Maintenance,
Amir Azizi
Procedia Manufacturing
Volume 2, 2015, Pages 186-190
open access
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2351978915000335


17. Statistical Quality Control
http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/pmc/section2/pmc2.htm


18. Calculation of Sample Sizes in Work Measurement and Work Sampling

http://www.measuringu.com/sample_continuous.htm
http://www.prenhall.com/divisions/bp/app/russellcd/PROTECT/CHAPTERS/CHAP08/HEAD06.HTM  (WorK measurement full chapter - Includes sample size calculation for time study and work sampling)


19. Test of Hypothesis
http://www.math.uah.edu/stat/hypothesis/Introduction.html

Test of hypothesis is to be used by industrial engineers to confirm or validate that their redesign or a process has resulted in the increase of productivity. This becomes useful when there is variation in the output from various workstations or persons.  We can also visualize activities in different places. In such case we test the hypothesis that productivity has improved in the workstations where redesign is is implemented.

HYPOTHESIS TESTING FOR THE PROCESS CAPABILITY RATIO - 2002 MS Thesis
https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file%3Faccession%3Dohiou1040054409%26disposition%3Dinline

One More presentation
http://fac.ksu.edu.sa/sites/default/files/DOE_Lecture%204%20test%20of%20hypothesis.pdf

September Fourth Week


22. Design of Experiments
http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/data-collection-analysis-tools/overview/design-of-experiments-tutorial.html

http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/pmd/section3/pmd31.htm

23. Six Sigma

http://www.intechopen.com/books/quality-management-and-six-sigma/six-sigma

http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2014/05/six-sigma-introduction.html

24. Application of Six Sigma
http://www.intechopen.com/books/six-sigma-projects-and-personal-experiences/5-successful-projects-from-the-application-of-six-sigma-methodology

25. Application of Six Sigma
http://www.wseas.us/e-library/conferences/2013/Vouliagmeni/INMAT/INMAT-01.pdf

26. Application of Six Sigma
http://www.journalamme.org/papers_amme05/1414.pdf


----------------


One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

In months after June the articles prescribed have to be modified as a new scheme is started in 2015.

Updated  5 September 2017,  23 August 2017, 11 September 2016,  30 September 2014


Principles of Industrial Engineering

_________________________________


__________________________________




Friday, September 22, 2017

Productivity Machine Tool Engineering



Productivity machine tool engineering has two aspects. One is improving the productivity of a manufacturing process by selecting more efficient machine tools. It also involves developing special purpose machine tools that increase productivity in a process.

The second aspect is redesign of machine tools to make them more productive in manufacturing processes. The role of industrial engineers in this activity is to identify the performance features of machine tools that give increased productivity in manufacturing processes.


Advances in Machine Tool Design and Research 1967: Proceedings
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=Gc8gBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA1#v=onepage&q&f=false


Design Optimization of Machine-Tool Structures Considering Manufacturing Cost, Accuracy, and Productivity
M. Yoshimura, Y. Takeuchi and K. Hitomi
J. Mech., Trans., and Automation 106(4), 531-537 (Dec 01, 1984)
http://mechanicaldesign.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=1452435

Wednesday, September 20, 2017

Productivity IoT Engineering



Using IoT technology and systems to improve productivity of engineering and engineering related products and processes.



Illustrations

Manpower Productivity Improvement Using IoT


Illustrations from Singapore Companies of replacing manpower with IoT enabled systems and devices


Symphony Group uses drones and IoT to count cars in its inventory. It used to take the company 50 man-hours to complete the count, but now it estimates to complete it within the hour using  a single technician.

HOPE Technik tackled  the challenge of carrying heavy loads for many industries by developing AGVs.The SESTO AGV is a robotic product and it functions flexibly in any facility. The AGVs do not require embedded lines or magnetic strips on the ground. SESTO AGV system has a payload ranging from 200 kilogrammes to 2 tonnes. Equipped with a laser-based navigation system and intelligent planning capability, the driverless  autonomous system functions without requiring any modifications to an existing environment.

The AGVs are deployed in a hospital, replacing four personnel to transport lab samples to lab technicians. The system handled over 500 deliveries per 12-hour shift and freed up the manpower.

In a semiconductor plant, five  SESTO AGVs helped take over the duties of twenty personnel, who previously transported work-in-progress materials between processes. This system handles 12,000 deliveries per 12-hour shift.

 AiTreat  is developing a Massage Assistive Robotic System (MARS) to help to help  the Traditional Chinese Massage practitioner serve two to five persons using robots to find massage needs and do massage with the massage plan created by the experienced practitioner. Thus it provides  direct labour productivity increase of 200-500 percent. MARS will have many different advanced sensors, like 3D, thermal, force/torque, distance, etc, to understand the points of tightness in the body and then provide the required massage at the required places.

https://www.techinasia.com/talk/madeinsingapore-iot-solutions-improve-labour-productivity



The Internet of Manufacturing Things:

Advances in sensors, standards and software could connect virtually everything

By Thomas R. Cutler
Industrial and Systems Engineering at Work
August 2014    |    Volume: 46    |    Number: 8

 IoT can improve various aspects of manufacturing efficiency, including productivity, asset health, profitability, quality, safety, employee safety and environmental impact. The narrow slice of the Industrial Internet of Things that mostly affects industrial engineers is the Internet of Manufacturing Things.
http://www.iise.org/industrialengineer/Details.aspx?id=37485


The Internet of Manufacturing Things
12 April, 2017
https://www.iot-now.com/2017/04/12/60647-internet-manufacturing-things/

Tuesday, September 19, 2017

Productivity Automation Engineering

Redesigning products or processes by incorporating automation to improve productivity.



Illustrations

Where does productivity engineering fit in software development?

Developer productivity engineering
Productivity engineers build systems, create processes, and facilitate development efforts that enable other engineers to be more productive.
http://ablogaboutcode.com/2017/05/26/productivity-engineering


Developer Productivity Engineering
_________________

_________________
Goruco

Smart Automation Technology for Maximum Productivity
https://www.boschrexroth.com/en/us/trends-and-topics/automation-productivity/index


Increasing productivity with Automation
November 2014
https://www.cleanindiajournal.com/increasing-productivity-with-automation/


Presentation on Increasing Productivity Through Automation
H.K. Chatterjee
at TexTech Exhibition, Ahmedabad, 2006

Productivity Engineering - Definition, Explanation and Areas





Productivity Engineering Explained


Productivity Engineering: Redesigning engineering and engineering related products and processes using engineering and engineering related knowledge relevant to improving the productivity.

Productivity science provides input to carry out productivity engineering. It means productivity science provides the opportunity to invent and patent new product features and process components that will improve productivity. Inventions are not always preceded by science. Many times inventors came out with engineering devices even when there is no science supporting it. Air conditioning is one example where invention came first and then science was developed that helped in designing air conditioners to fit various needs.


Areas of Productivity Engineering

Productivity Software Engineering
Redesigning products or processes by including software solutions, or developing software solutions to improve productivity in any activity or process
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2017/09/productivity-software-engineering.html

Productivity VR Engineering: Redesigning products and processes using VR to improve productivity.
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2017/09/productivity-vr-engineering.html

Productivity Automation Engineering
Redesigning products or processes by incorporating automation to improve productivity.
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2017/09/productivity-automation-engineering.html

Productivity IoT Engineering
Using IoT technology and systems to improve productivity of engineering and engineering related products and processes.
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2017/09/productivity-iot-engineering.html


Productivity VR Engineering - Productivity Virtual Reality Engineering



Productivity Engineering: Redesigning engineering products and processes using engineering knowledge relevant to improving the productivity. Productivity science provide input to carry out productivity engineering. It means productivity science provides the opportunity to invent and patent new product features and process components that will improve productivity.

Productivity VR Engineering is an area of Productivity Engineering

Productivity VR Engineering: Redesigning products and processes using VR to improve productivity.


The motivation for making this post today (19 September 2017) came from a post in the Linked community of IISE having the link to the article.

https://www.ennomotive.com/10-industries-virtual-reality/


One more sub-area of productivity engineering is identified today.

Productivity Software Engineering
Redesigning products or processes by including software solutions, or developing software solutions to improve productivity in any activity or process
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2017/09/productivity-software-engineering.html

Productivity Software Engineering



Redesigning products or processes by including software solutions, or developing software solutions to improve productivity in any activity or process.

Illustration

https://www.threadsol.com/
We Guarantee Profit. Make Money. Everyday.

ThreadSol is a software solution for garment manufactures

ThreadSol Helped A Suit Manufacturer Achieve

Profit increase of   $  3 ,000,000 through

Reduced Effort by  20 % and

Reduced Wastage of Material by 40 %



ThreadSol was founded in 2013 with the vision to be the largest technology company in the apparel domain worldwide. The first company to bring technology like Big Data, Artificial Intelligence and Mobility to the Global Apparel Industry.

Headquartered in Singapore, ThreadSol is present in 15 countries and works with the largest and the best apparel brands and manufactures around the globe.

With its innovative solutions, ThreadSol saves upto 10% cost for manufacturers and brands.




-----------------------

Monday, September 18, 2017

Productivity Management




Principles of Industrial Engineering 


1. Develop science for each element of a man - machine system's work related to efficiency and productivity.
2. Engineer methods, processes and operations to use the scientific laws related to the work of machines, man, materials and other resources to improve economic efficiency and productivity.
3. Select or assign workmen based on predefined aptitudes for various types of man - machine work.
4. Train workmen, supervisors, and engineers in the new methods, install various modifications related to the machines that include productivity improvement devices and ensure that the expected productivity is realized.
5. Incorporate suggestions of operators, supervisors and engineers in the methods redesign on a continuous basis.
6. Plan and manage productivity at system level.

Productivity Management


What is management?

Management is a planned and systematic activity for effectiveness and efficiency in accomplishing objectives.

An activity is management effectively by planning and confirming that it meets the requirements of the customer and the profit goals of the organization (includes partnerships and sole proprietors). Then  the organization of resources has to be designed, resources are to be acquired, human resources are to be trained and directed, other resources are allocated for various tasks, and put under the charge of operators, supervisors and managers and control action is taken to ensure that results follow plans or modified plans.

Efficiency is also attained by taking care of it during planning, organizing, acquiring of resources and their allocation, training and directing human resources and control phases.

Effectiveness is concerned with providing the goods and services that persons desire with various benefit and attribute bundles.

Efficiency is concerned with minimizing the resources spent in the production of desired goods or services.


Important Functions in Productivity Management


Organization Productivity Policy  Management

Department Productivity Policy and Management

Cross-functions Productivity Policy and  Management

Production Training and Promotion

Top Management Productivity Control


Promotion of Productivity Improvement Program


1. Spelling out the goals of the productivity program for the next year and next five years or a five year plan by the CEO

2. Forming a Productivity Steering Committee of Top Executives

3. Demonstrating the commitment to productivity program by the CEO and other top executives


4. Organizing and Reorganizing the Productivity Management Department

5. Declaring the Introduction of Productivity Improvement Program or Yearly Productivity Plan by the CEO.

6. Organizing Grade by Grade Training in Productivity Improvement.

7. Creating Productivity Improvement Circles in each department.

8. Forming cross functional Management Committees

9. Productivity Audits by Various Levels of Management

10. Productivity Rewards at Productivity Case Study Contests and Productivity Review Seminars.

11. Best Practice Identification Workshops

12. Sending Operator Teams and Manager Teams to National and International Teams to present their achievements and learn from other organization achievements.

13. Productivity News Letter Creation and Distribution through print and online channels.

14. Reporting Productivity achievements in Annual reports of the company.



Organizing and Reorganizing the Productivity Management Department


If presently there is no specific department that looks after productivity improvement, the organization has to create one to have systematic productivity improvement program. At the top of the productivity program there can a single manager or a cross functional committee chaired by one of the members of the committee. This department may need to be reorganized periodically to take care of increased responsibility and induction of more people, or reduction of more people, or starting of new sections to take care of new methods and techniques etc.

Productivity Promotion Office


The Need for Productivity Promotion Office


Etzioni’s (1965, 1975) model of organizational change refers to the conforming or nonconforming behavior of various persons in the organization and the expectations and performance goals of those in charge of planning and managing change. The total organization will change when nonconforming person's number approaches zero.  The model identified a sequence of four phases in change: education and promotion; commitment; performance; withdrawal of the special promotion effort as the organization change is completed successfully. The model does not, however, give the duration, and hence timing by which phase succeeds one another.

Japanese quality author, Hitoshi Kume writes that to build or develop a system in which people are proactive towards work improvement to improve output, certain new ways of presenting things are necessary.

1. People have to be presented information that helps in better understanding of the current situation of the organization. People are generally happy with long-surviving routines and do not see waste or the loss caused by them to the organization. Only when the fact that organisation is suffering due to that routine in a big way and there is a way to eliminate that waste through some effort is brought into their consciousness that people start thinking about the issue.  Such an insight sometimes can come to people when they are attending lectures by experts in waste elimination or in implementing some techniques that eliminate that waste, or by listening to success stories told in case study competitions, when visiting plants with best practices or consultant presentations. When the senior managers of the company realize this existence of waste, they can create a promotion team to make all the persons in company become aware of the waste. Productivity promotion has to do this type of promotion.

2. Encouraging operators to come out with improvement suggestions is important for their self development. Both Taylor and Gilbreth, the pioneers of scientific management and industrial engineering emphasized this point. The operators have to first follow the standard method designed as the best method at that point in time by the industrial engineering or scientific managers and then have to keep giving suggestions which will improve the method further. In the early days of scientfic management and industrial engineering all those suggestions were referred back to industrial engineers. But in Japanese companies, especially in Toyota Motors, after the second world war, this responsibility of evaluating and accepting the suggestions of operators was given to the supervisors and engineers of the shop. Engineers and supervisors are made responsible for continuous improvement of the processes with the involvement of the operators. Productivity promotion offices of the current day have to take up this self development aspect of productivity improvement  (good process change - kaizen) ideas as an important issues and ask all operators to think all the time to improve the method whenever they get an idea because of their reading, observation, or responding to an issue while working. It is to be stressed that supervisors are always ready to listen to improvement ideas and they have some time set apart for listening to improvement ideas of operators working under them.

3. Productivity promotion office also has to promote among all the supervisors and human relations personnel the idea that apart from doing the job effectively and efficiently and achieving results specified as a standard, a proactive mindset that thinks of more effectiveness and efficiency has to be developed in all operators. Supervisors have to provides the required inputs in creative thinking and provide routines or behavior opportunities and role plays in which creativity is exhibited and thus becomes a habit among operators.

4. Successful productivity improvement effort results in tangible results. Each successful project provides a taste of productivity improvement to the other members of the organization. The success when verified, validated and celebrated develops more operators and supervisors committed to the program. The role of Productivity Promotion Office or Section is to produce this snowballing effect. Productivity is to be promoted for bringing the abilities of people into production projects development and implementation. The chief of productivity promotion office is especially responsible for creating enthusiasm for productivity in the organization.

Productivity promotion office has to specially target persons who are not enthusiastic about productivity improvement at any point in time. Frederick Taylor indicated in 1911 itself, that objective demonstration, and teachers who are capable of the holding the hand of the operator and train him in the new efficient method are necessary for change of the mindset of people who are apprehensive of the new efficient methods. Productivity promotion office has to develop trainers of the new productive method and arrange for demonstration of objective and tangible results from a stream of productivity projects to convert more and more people into active supporters of the productivity program.  The persons working in the productivity promotion office need leadership ability, the ability of influencing people, perseverance to do productivity promotion over long periods of time, and have to be broad-minded and tolerant. They should not short tempered people who get upset with too few converts to productivity projects. The persons of the productivity promotion office have to be full of enthusiasm and belief in the productivity policy announced by the top management.

The Role of the Productivity Promotion Office


1. Acting the secretariat for the CEO and Productivity Steering Committee.

2. Drafting the Productivity Policy

3. Drafting the Productivity Promotion Plans

4. Program of promoting the productivity policy of the organization

5. Establishing the productivity management system

6. Program of promoting productivity circles.

7. Planning productivity training activity.

8. Keeping record of productivity improvement projects and unresolved issues relating to productivity improvement.

9. Planning top management audits of productivity practice.

10. Organizing productivity result sharing seminars, case study sessions, best practice sessions, and celebration events.

11. Compiling annual results of productivity improvement activity and collaborating with financial , cost and management accounting to arrive at financial contribution and capital and revenue expenditure incurred for productivity improvement activities and projects.

12. Preparation of books, articles, magazines and videos.

13. Establishment of a desk for providing productivity related help.

14. Management of productivity initiatives website of the organization.

15. Management of productivity library


Sustaining The Productivity Movement


Productivity promotion activity can be initiated and run successfully for number of years by the active participation of productivity promotion office. But once the promotion activity is reduced and stopped, the productivity improvement may slacken. It is not easy to sustain an activity without the an effort to sustain it. Hence, the productivity promotion section is to be substituted productivity sustenance section. This section has to develop information that reminds all the productivity improvement efforts other organizations and their results and remind the personnel of the organization the need to continuously promote productivity in their departments.

1. Every year the productivity policy management has to take place
2. Cross function committees are to be formed and the chairmen have to be appointed again.
3. Training programs at all levels have to continue as appropriate
4. Productivity circle activity has to continue
5. Top management audits have to take place.
6. Daily work management to achieve productivity has to implemented and practiced.
7. Important productivity breakthroughs have to be publicized.


This article is modeled on an article of TQM promotion

I included productivity management in functions of industrial engineering. I am trying to further expand the explanation of the topic.

Updated 19 September 2017, 20 November 2016




Monday, September 11, 2017

Lean Management - Lean Industrial Engineering




The further development in lean has to provide more scientific insight into how product and service attributes contribute to customer value; what matters most for improving classic lean variables, such as lead time, cost, quality, responsiveness, flexibility, and reliability; and new opportunities for cross-functional problem solving to eliminate anything that strays from customer-defined value.
http://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/operations/our-insights/next-frontiers-for-lean




The lean approach conceptualized by MIT team lead Jim Womack based on Toyota Production system has  management component and industrial engineering component. The above statement of McKinsey consultants brings out the point clearly.

The management component is the  scientific insight into how product and service attributes contribute to customer value.  Managers have to understand what provides the value to customers. Customers idea of value keeps changing. Managers have to track and find out the changes and redesign the systems accordingly.

Industrial engineers have to the productivity focus. Each redesign of the system by managers to improve effectiveness has to be followed by IE redesign to improve efficiency. Apart from this IE discoveries and inventions provide the scope for increasing efficiency of systems.

From industrial engineering point of view, the development of lean approach is focus on reduction of inventories.

Sunday, September 3, 2017

September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan with Promotion Links















September 1st Week

Industrial Engineering Optimization

Mathematical optimization was used by F.W. Taylor. As operations research was developed and more optimization techniques were developed, industrial engineers advocated the use of them in companies to improve productivity, reduce costs, and increase profits. All industrial engineering redesigns are to be optimized and industrial engineers use various optimization techniques to optimize their engineering redesigns to increase productivity.

1 September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

Operations Research - An Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/operations-research-efficiency.html

PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH
(from the perspective of an industrial engineer)
(From Maynard's Industrial Engineering Handbook, 5th Edition, pp. 11.27-11.44)
Jayant Rajgopal (From Rajgopal's website)
http://www.pitt.edu/~jrclass/or/or-intro.html

2 September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

What is mathematical programming?
http://coral.ie.lehigh.edu/~ted/files/ie316/lectures/Lecture1.pdf
Examples of Mathematical Programming.
http://coral.ie.lehigh.edu/~ted/files/ie316/lectures/Lecture2.pdf

3 September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

Simplex Method
http://mat.gsia.cmu.edu/classes/QUANT/NOTES/chap7.pdf

4. September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

 Transportation Problem
http://orms.pef.czu.cz/text/transProblem.html

5. September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan
Queing Models
http://orms.pef.czu.cz/text/QueTeory/QueuingModels.html


September 2nd  Week


8. September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan
Simulation
http://orms.pef.czu.cz/text/NolinearProgramming/simulation.html


9. September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan
An Overview of Optimization Techniques for CNC Milling Machine
https://www.alliedjournals.com/download_data/IJEMS_V1IS50005.pdf

10. September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan
 New Technology and Optimization of Mobile Phone Battery
https://theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/110646/Liu%20Jian_Zhang%20Yixian.pdf?sequence=1

11. September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan
Combustion Optimization in PF Boilers
http://www.eecpowerindia.com/codelibrary/ckeditor/ckfinder/userfiles/files/Session%201%20Combustion%20and%20Optimisation%20in%20coal%20fired%20boilers_KBP_17_09_2013.pdf

12. September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan
 Application of Optimization Techniques in the Power System Control
https://uni-obuda.hu/journal/Kadar_43.pdf

September Third Week


Industrial Engineering Statistics


F.W. Taylor himself advocated maintaining of records and data for decision making. The other industrial engineering pioneers also promoted record keeping and data analysis. As sampling based  decision making became more robust, industrial engineers promoted it as a productivity improvement initiative and imperative. One of the prominent areas of application is statistical quality control. Now six sigma, a statistics based technique is being promoted by the IE profession.

15  September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan
Basics of Statistics
http://bobhall.tamu.edu/FiniteMath/Module8/Introduction.html



16 September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan
Statistical Process Control
http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/pmc/section1/pmc12.htm
http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/pmc/section3/pmc3.htm

Evaluation Improvement of Production Productivity Performance using Statistical Process Control, Overall Equipment Efficiency, and Autonomous Maintenance,
Amir Azizi
Procedia Manufacturing
Volume 2, 2015, Pages 186-190
open access
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2351978915000335


17 September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan
Statistical Quality Control
http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/pmc/section2/pmc2.htm


18 September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan
Calculation of Sample Sizes in Work Measurement and Work Sampling

http://www.measuringu.com/sample_continuous.htm
http://www.prenhall.com/divisions/bp/app/russellcd/PROTECT/CHAPTERS/CHAP08/HEAD06.HTM  (WorK measurement full chapter - Includes sample size calculation for time study and work sampling)


19 September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

Test of Hypothesis
http://www.math.uah.edu/stat/hypothesis/Introduction.html

Test of hypothesis is to be used by industrial engineers to confirm or validate that their redesign or a process has resulted in the increase of productivity. This becomes useful when there is variation in the output from various workstations or persons.  We can also visualize activities in different places. In such case we test the hypothesis that productivity has improved in the workstations where redesign is is implemented.



HYPOTHESIS TESTING FOR THE PROCESS CAPABILITY RATIO - 2002 MS Thesis
https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file%3Faccession%3Dohiou1040054409%26disposition%3Dinline

One More presentation
http://fac.ksu.edu.sa/sites/default/files/DOE_Lecture%204%20test%20of%20hypothesis.pdf

September Fourth Week


22 September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan
Design of Experiments
http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/data-collection-analysis-tools/overview/design-of-experiments-tutorial.html

http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/pmd/section3/pmd31.htm

23 September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan
Six Sigma

http://www.intechopen.com/books/quality-management-and-six-sigma/six-sigma

http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2014/05/six-sigma-introduction.html

24 September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan
Application of Six Sigma
http://www.intechopen.com/books/six-sigma-projects-and-personal-experiences/5-successful-projects-from-the-application-of-six-sigma-methodology

25 September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan
Application of Six Sigma
http://www.wseas.us/e-library/conferences/2013/Vouliagmeni/INMAT/INMAT-01.pdf

26  September Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan
Application of Six Sigma
http://www.journalamme.org/papers_amme05/1414.pdf


----------------


One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

In months after June the articles prescribed have to be modified as a new scheme is started in 2015.

Updated  23 August 2017, 11 September 2016,  30 September 2014



August - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan





Revision of Process Industrial Engineering - Methods, Techniques and Tools

In this month's revision plan the focus is on production process improvement which also includes many engineering processes related to production and maintenance of engineering goods and services.

Management of processes are also analyzed and redesigned by industrial engineers. If management processes, activities and policies are responsible for poor productivity, industrial engineers have to propose changes in management methods, practices and tools to improve productivity. This aspect of industrial engineering is discussed under the area - productivity management.

Process Industrial Engineering - Process Efficiency/Productivity Improvement - Process Cost Reduction

First Week

1 August to 5 August

     Process Industrial Engineering
     Machine Tool Improvement and Cutting Time Reduction

     Operation Analysis - Methods Efficiency Engineering
     Operation Analysis Sheet

    Using the Operation Analysis Sheet
    Analysis of Purpose of Operation

    Analysis of All Operations of a Process as a Step of Each Operation Analysis
    Analysis of Tolerances and Inspection Standards

    Analysis of Material in Operation Analysis
    Tool Related Operation Analysis


Second Week

8 August to 12 August

    Material Handling Analysis in Operations
    Operation Analysis of Setups

    Operation Analysis - Man and Machine Activity Charts
    Operation Analysis - Plant Layout Analysis

    Operation Analysis - Analysis of Working Conditions and Method
    Operation Analysis - Common Possibilities for Operation Improvement

    Operation Analysis - Check List
    Method Study

   Principles of Methods Efficiency Engineering
   Method Study - Information Collection and Recording - Chapter Contents


Third Week

15 August to 19 August

Process Analysis - Questions/Check List
Installing Proposed Methods

Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange, Simplify - ECRS Method - Barnes
Process and Productivity Improvement Through Smart Machines and Smart Factories

Process and Productivity Improvement through incorporating Data Analytics
Plant Layout Analysis

Flow Process Charts - Reinterpretation of Its Purpose and Utility
Industrial Engineering of Flow Production Lines - Thought Before Taiichi Ohno and Shigeo Shingo

SMED
Poka-Yoke


Fourth Week

22 August to 26 August

Industrial Engineering - Foundation of Toyota Production System
Toyota Production System Industrial Engineering - Shigeo Shingo

Introducing and Implementing the Toyota Production System - Shiego Shingo
Seven Waste Model and Its Extensions

Industrial Engineering of Maintenance Processes
Manufacturing System Losses Idenfied in TPM Literature

Industrial Engineering of Inspection Processes
Industrial Engineering of Material Handling Processes

Zero Defect Movement and Six Sigma Method
Process Cost Analysis - Cost Center Statement Analysis



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One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan


January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December


Principles of Industrial Engineering

Presentation at the 2017 Annual IISE Conference, Pittsburgh
by Prof Narayana Rao, K.V.S.S.
______________________

______________________




Updated  4 September 2017,  30 July 2017,  28 July 2016, 19 April 2015, 17 July 2014


Tuesday, August 29, 2017

Operation Analysis - Methods Efficiency Engineering



Operation Analysis and Method Study are the two popular methods in Process Industrial Engineering. Japanese industrial engineering improvements brought out new techniques like SMED, Poka Yoke, 5S and Seven Waste model etc.

The term 'Operations Analysis" was used by James Anderson in his book on Industrial Engineering published in 1928. He said operation analysis is the short form for long form "Job Standardization, Motion Study and Time Study." H.B. Maynard has authored a full book on operation analysis. The job standardization implies what Taylor did with machine tools before he undertook study of operator's activities and movements.

The First Step


The first step in the study of any process/job is to make a thorough analysis by resolving it into its component parts or elements. Each part or element may then be considered separately, and the study of the process thus becomes a series of fairly simple problems.

A process consists of operations. In process analysis, each operation is examined to rationalize it for doing it as well as doing it at that step in the sequence of operations.  Eliminate, combine, and rearrange (ECR) analysis is done for each operation of the process. In a way, it is an examination of the division of a process into operations to improve the efficiency of the process.

During primary analysis of an operation, the operation is broken down into such general factors as material, inspection requirements, equipment & tools, man  and working conditions. Each one of these factors is then examined minutely and critically in order to discover possibilities for improvement. This kind of analytical work of the operation is covered by the term " operation analysis."

For examining the factors that go into an operation, more detailed methods are available. Motion study, for example,  is 'focused on the method of the operator.

Approach to Operation Analysis


To conduct analysis work successfully, a distinctive mental attitude must be developed. .  In order to improve an operation, it must be approached with the idea that it can be improved. Otherwise, progress is not made in the improvement effort. During the training for operation analysis, number of examples of operation analysis and consequent improvement of the operations have to be given to develop favorable attitude in operation analysts and its team members.

If a job has previously been carefully studied, the best method may conceivably have been devised, and no further improvement may be possible, immediately. Experience has shown, however, that there are few established methods which cannot be improved at a later point in time. In, this connection, the history of a certain bench operation furnishes an excellent and by no means uncommon illustration of this point (Maynard). The job originally was done on daywork, and past production records showed that the time taken per part was 0.0140 hour, or slightly less than 1 minute. The job was time-studied and put on an incentive basis with an allowance of 0.0082 hour. The operator worked made a fair bonus on this job, and the feeling existed for some tune that the proper method was being followed.

After the operation had been set up for 6 months, however, a suggestion for improvement was advanced say by the foreman. The suggestion was not based upon systematic analysis but rather was the result of inspiration. The suggestion was put into effect;  the job was restudied, an allowance of 0.0062 hour was set. This last method was followed for 6 months more, when another suggestion, also of the inspirational type, was advanced. It was adopted, and a new time value of 0.0044 hour was established.

The job was a prominent one, and the improvements attracted considerable attention. The job was selected for detailed motion study. A completely new method was devised which followed the principles of correct motion practices. The new method was time-studied and standard time of 0.0013 hour was set.

The operation was thus improved to an extent where the time required was only approximately one-eleventh of that taken at first on the old daywork basis.   An improvement of such great magnitude justifies the statement that the latest method is a very good method; but in view of the past history of the job, it would be unwise to say that the best method has been attained.

As the result of many similar experiences, methods engineers are using the terms  "the best method yet devised"  implying recognition of the fact that further improvement may be possible (Even Gilbreth stressed this point). Carrying this thought to a logical conclusion, the .best method of doing an operation from a labor-economy standpoint is reached only when the man-machine time required has been reduced to zero. Until this point has been reached, further improvement is always possible.

This example  furnishes a foundation for the approach to operation analysis. If it is clearly recognized, it insures an open mind. Such mental obstacles as "it won't work' "it can't be done" and "it was tried before and didn't work"  are cleared away at the outset. Lack of success in improving any job is not interpreted to mean that the job cannot be improved, but rather that no way of improving it has yet been discovered. There is a vast difference in the two interpretations. The first induces contentment with things as they are and leads to stagnation; the second inspires further attacks from different angles and leads to progress.

The Questioning Attitude.


An open mind paves the way for successful analytical work, but it is not sufficient in itself. One can be open-minded in the passive sense of being receptive to suggestions, but this will not lead to accomplishment. The analyst must take the initiative in originating suggestions himself if he wishes to get results.

Other things being equal, the greatest amount of originality, or what passes for originality in a world where it is often said that there is nothing new, is evinced by those who have an inquiring turn of mind. The man who constantly asks questions and takes nothing for granted is often a disturbance to the contentment of those who are willing to accept things as they are, but he is the one who originates new things. Improvements come from first examining what is with an open mind and then inquiring into what might be.

This point should be clearly understood, and what is known as the " questioning attitude" should conscientiously be developed. In making an investigation of a job, nothing should be taken for granted, and everything should be questioned. Then the answers should be determined on the basis of facts, and the influence of emotions, likes and dislikes, or preconceived prejudices should be guarded against.

One who is successful in bringing about improvements in operating methods has few deep-seated convictions. He accepts little or nothing as being right because it exists. Instead, he asks questions and gathers answers which he evaluates in the light of his knowledge and experience. He questions methods, tools, and layouts. He investigates all phases of every job he studies, in so far, at least, as he has time. He even asks questions when the answers appear obvious, if he thinks he can bring out something by so doing.

The questions asked take the general form of "what," "why," "how," "who," "where," and "when. " What is the operation? Why is it performed? How is it done? Who does it? Where is it done? When is it done in relation to other operations? These questions, in one form or another, should be asked about every factor connected with the job being analyzed. Typical questions that arise during the study of industrial operations are as follows:

If more than one operator is working on the same job, are all operators using the same method? If not, why not? Is the operator comfortable? Sitting down as much as possible? Has the stool or chair being used a comfortable back and a seat that is wide enough? Is the lighting good? Is the temperature of the work station right? Are there no drafts? Are there arm-rests for the operator? If the operation can be done either seated or standing, is the height of the chair such that the elbows of the operator are the same distance from the floor in either case?

Can a fixture be used? Are the position and height of the fixture correct? Is the fixture the best available? Is the fixture designed in accordance with the principles of motion economy? Would a fixture holding more than one piece be better than one holding a single piece? Can the same fixture be used for more than one operation? Can a clamp, a vise, or a fixture be substituted for the human hand for holding? Are semiautomatic tools such as ratchet or power-driven wrenches or screw drivers applicable?

Is the operator using both hands all the time? If so, are the operations symmetrical? Do the hands move simultaneously in opposite directions? Can two pieces be handled at one time to better advantage than one? Can a foot device be arranged so that an operation now performed by hand can be done by foot?

Are raw materials properly placed? Are there racks for pans of material and containers for smaller parts? Can the parts be secured without searching and selecting? Are the most frequently used parts placed in the most convenient location? Are the handling methods and equipment satisfactory? Would a roller or a belt conveyer facilitate handling? Can the parts be placed aside by means of a chute?

Is the design of the apparatus the best from the viewpoint of manufacturing economy? Can the design be changed to facilitate machining or assembly without affecting the quality of the apparatus? Are tools designed so as to insure minimum manipulation time? Can eccentric clamps or ejectors be used?

Is the job on the proper machine? Are the correct feeds and speeds being used? Are the specified tolerances correct for the use to which the part is to be put? Is the material the most economical for the job? Can the operator run more than one machine or perform another operation while the machine is making a cut? Would a bench of special design be bettor than a standard bench? Is the work area properly laid out?

This list of questions could be extended almost indefinitely, but enough have been given to illustrate the sort of questions that should be asked during a methods efficiency study. The importance of asking such questions is paramount. The chief difference between a successful analyst and one who seldom accomplishes
much is that the former has developed the questioning attitude to a high degree. The latter may be capable of making the same improvements as the former, but they do not occur to him as possibilities because he accepts things as they are instead of questioning them.

Operation Analysis Need Not Be Confined to Methods Engineers. Although the questioning attitude is developed by the methods engineer as an aid to thorough analysis, it need not be and should not be solely his property. The other shop supervisors will find it equally useful for attacking their particular problems and finding solutions for them. If they focus it on operating methods, they will be able to make many improvements in the course of their daily work. Thus, methods-improvement work will progress more rapidly than it would if it were left entirely to the methods engineer.

If a plant is small and has insufficient activity to justify employing anyone in the capacity of methods engineer, it will be particularly desirable for all members of the supervisory force to develop the questioning attitude. It is extremely easy to view things without seeing them when they are supposedly familiar. Those most familiar with the work are the least likely to see opportunities for improvement, unless they consciously try to remain as aware of their surroundings as they would be were they new to the plant. Where the supervisory group does not change often, the cultivation of the questioning attitude is almost essential to progress.

Questions should not be asked at random, although this would be better than asking no questions at all. Rather, it is better to proceed systematically, questioning points in the order in which they should be acted upon. It would be unwise, for example, to question the tools, setup, and method used on a certain job before the purpose of the operation was considered. Better tools might be devised, and the method might be changed ; but if it were later found upon examination of the purpose of the operation that it need not be done at all, the time and money spent on tool and methods changes would be wasted.

The systematic job analysis will be discussed in this knol book in sufficient detail to give a thorough understanding.

Making Suggestions for Improvement. 


When a job is examined in all its details with an open mind and when all factors that are related to it are questioned, possibilities for improvement are almost certain to be uncovered if the job has not been studied in this way before. The action that is taken upon the possibilities will depend upon the position of the one who uncovers them. If he has the authority to take action and approve expenditures, he will undoubtedly go ahead and make the improvements without further preliminaries. If, however, he does not have that authority, he must present his ideas in the form of suggestions to the one who does.


In the first place, the true worth of each suggestion should be carefully evaluated before it is offered. If he establishes a reputation for offering only suggestions of real merit, one will find it easier to secure an attentive hearing than if he is continually advancing suggestions that have to be examined to separate the good from the impractical.

The quickest way to prove the merit of any suggestion is to make or obtain estimates of the cost of adopting it and of the total yearly saving it may be expected to effect. These two figures will show just how much must be spent and how long it will be before the expenditure will be returned. If a suggestion costs $1,000 to adopt and will save $100 per year, it is not worth presenting unless there are unusual circumstances. If, on the other hand, the expenditure will be returned within a reasonable length of time, the suggestion is worthy of careful consideration.

When it has been definitely decided that the suggestion is sound and valuable, it should be presented to the proper authorities for approval. Here, again, estimates of expenditure and return will prove valuable. The statement that much time will be saved or even that a saving of 0.0050 hour per piece can be made is not likely to mean so much as figures showing a saving of a certain number of dollars per year. A complete presentation which includes cost and savings totals will be appreciated, for if they are not furnished, they must be requested anyway, and this will only postpone final action.

An example of a good presentation of a labor-saving idea is as follows :

Works Manager:

By analyzing the cork-tube winding operation in the Cork Department, it has been found that one-third of the winder's time is spent in doing work requiring a high degree of skill and the remaining two-thirds in doing work that could be satisfactorily performed by unskilled labor.

The time consumed by the portion of the cycle that requires high skill is almost exactly one-half of that required for the balance. Therefore, it will be entirely feasible to place four winding machines in a group, using one skilled man with two unskilled helpers to run them. In this manner, the average production of three skilled workers running three machines will be obtained at a greatly reduced cost.

Under the proposed setup, the skilled worker will apply the cork to the cloth core which has been set up by one helper and will then move to another machine which the other helper has set up. Each helper will tie the ends of a finished cork-covered tube, will remove the tube, and will set up another while the skilled man is busy at other machines.

The skilled man receives 60 cents per hour and the unskilled men 40 cents per hour each. The labor cost per tube will therefore be approximately 0.76 cent as compared with the present cost of 1 cent each.

On the basis of present activities, this will amount to a yearly saving of $2,361.55. There will be a certain amount of idle machine time under the proposed arrangement; but since we have more machine equipment than we require for our present volume of business, this need not be considered.

This matter has been discussed with the foreman,  and he believes that the arrangement will work satisfactorily. In order to proceed with the proposed change, it will be necessary to relocate 12 machines.  Maintenance Department estimates that this can be done for a cost of $480.

In view of the savings that can be made, the suggestion is recommended for acceptance by you

Signed

In this report, enough details are given to explain the general nature of the suggestion. The total yearly saving of $2,361.55 is shown, as also are the cost of adopting the suggestion and the source of the estimate. The fact that the suggestion meets with the approval of the foreman of the department, always a most important point, is also clearly stated. As a result, all questions that are likely to arise in the mind of the manager are answered in advance, and there is a good likelihood that he will give immediate approval.

Occasionally, ideas occur which appear to possess advantages to the originator other than those which can be measured in dollars and cents. In presenting suggestions of this nature, advantages and disadvantages should be presented in tabulated form, so that a decision can be quickly made.


Source: Maynard's Operation Analysis

Full Knol Book - Method Study: Methods Efficiency Engineering - Knol Book
Next Article on the Topic - Scope and Limitations of Methods Efficiency Engineering



Process analysis is an examination of the division of a process into operations to improve the efficiency of the process. Process analysis examines the sequence of steps specified to convert inputs into outputs.

Process analysis now is extended to analyzing the process in other dimensions.



Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing
October 2006, Volume 17, Issue 5, pp 571-583
Evaluation of techniques for manufacturing process analysis
J. C. Hernandez-Matias, A. Vizan, A. Hidalgo, J. Rios
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10845-006-0025-1


Updated 30 July 2017,  28 June 2015
First posted 16 Feb 2014

Sunday, August 27, 2017

TRIZ - Creative Thinking for Inventing and Innovating



New Books and Articles on TRIZ
2016 to

Systematic Innovation Toolkit
March 25, 2016
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/systematic-innovation-toolkit-prashant-joglekar






-----------------------

40 Inventive principles of TRIZ


Described in Part 2-3 of the Book  The Innovation Algorithm

Also See

40 Principles: TRIZ Keys to Innovation

Genrich Altshuller, Lev Shulyak, Steven Rodman
Technical Innovation Center, Inc., 2002 - 135 pages
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=mqlGEZgn5cwC

The book has one page for each principle with pictures illustrating the explanation of the principle.


Principle 1: Segmentation:

Principle 2: Taking out or Extraction:

Principle 3: Local quality: development; local anaesthesia.

Principle 4: Asymmetry:

Principle 5: Merging, Consolidation or combining:

Principle 6: Universality:

Principle 7: Nested doll:

Principle 8: Anti-weight:

Principle 9: Preliminary anti-action:


Principle 10: Preliminary action:

Principle 11: Beforehand cushioning:


Principle 12: Equipotentiality:


Principle 13: The other way round:


Principle 14: Spheroidality – Curvature:


Principle 15: Dynamics:


Principle 16 : Partial or Excessive actions:


Principle 17: Another dimension:


Principle 18: Mechanical vibration:


Principle 19: Periodic action:


Principle 20: Continuity of useful action:


Principle 21: Skipping or Rushing Through:


Principle 22 : Blessing in disguise - Harm into benefit:

Principle 23: Feedback:


Principle 24: Intermediary/Mediator:

Principle 25: Self-Service:


Principle 26: Copying:


Principle 27: Cheap short-living objects:


Principle 28: Mechanics substitution:


Principle 29: Pneumatics and hydraulics:


Principle 30: Flexible shells and thin films:


Principle 31: Porous materials:


Principle 32: Color changes:


Principle 33: Homogeneity:


Principle 34: Rejecting, Discarding – Recovering, Regeneration:


Principle 35: Parameter Changes:


Principle 36 : Phase transitions:


Principle 37: Thermal expansion:


Principle 38 : Accelerated oxidation:

Principle 39 : Inert atmosphere:

Principle 40: Composite materials:


40 Principles - Pdf List
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470282199.app2/pdf

Examples of 40 principles - from automotive sector
https://triz-journal.com/40-principles-automotive/

https://www.triz.co.uk/files/U48432_40_inventive_principles_with_examples.pdf

http://www.triz40.com/aff_Principles_TRIZ.php


TRIZ: Systematic Innovation in Manufacturing

Yeoh Teong San, Yeoh Tay Jin, Song Chi Li
Firstfruits Publishing, 2009 - Engineering - 180 pages
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=04Fn-KZCqNQC

The Ideal Result: What It Is and How to Achieve It

Jack Hipple
Springer Science & Business Media, 26-Jun-2012 -  208 pages


The Ideal Final Result introduces the TRIZ Inventive Problem Solving Process in a way that allows readers to make immediate use of its most basic concepts. The Ideal Final Result reviews the basics of this left brained, but at the same time, very creative process for problem solving that uses a basic algorithm developed through the study of millions of patents. As opposed to psychologically based tools relying on the generation of hundreds of ideas to be sorted through to find the few of value, TRIZ rigorously defines the problem and assists the problem owner in identifying the existing inventive principles that are already known to solve that class of problems. This book reviews the most basic of the TRIZ algorithm tools and provides templates for readers to use in analyzing their difficult problems and provides a mental framework for their solution. It also describes TRIZ techniques for basic strategic planning in a business sense.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=Kq8OL2RMgTIC

TRIZ for Engineers: Enabling Inventive Problem Solving

Karen Gadd
John Wiley & Sons, 11-Feb-2011 - 504 pages


TRIZ is a brilliant toolkit for nurturing engineering creativity and innovation. This accessible, colourful and practical guide has been developed from problem-solving workshops run by Oxford Creativity, one of the world's top TRIZ training organizations started by Gadd in 1998. Gadd has successfully introduced TRIZ to many major organisations such as Airbus, Sellafield Sites, Saint-Gobain, DCA, Doosan Babcock, Kraft, Qinetiq, Trelleborg, Rolls Royce and BAE Systems, working on diverse major projects including next generation submarines, chocolate packaging, nuclear clean-up, sustainability and cost reduction.

Engineering companies are increasingly recognising and acting upon the need to encourage successful, practical and systematic innovation at every stage of the engineering process including product development and design. TRIZ enables greater clarity of thought and taps into the creativity innate in all of us, transforming random, ineffective brainstorming into targeted, audited, creative sessions focussed on the problem at hand and unlocking the engineers' knowledge and genius to identify all the relevant solutions.

For good design engineers and technical directors across all industries, as well as students of engineering, entrepreneurship and innovation, TRIZ for Engineers will help unlock and realise the potential of TRIZ. The individual tools are straightforward, the problem-solving process is systematic and repeatable, and the results will speak for themselves.
This highly innovative book:

Satisfies the need for concise, clearly presented information together with practical advice on TRIZ and problem solving algorithms
Employs explanatory techniques, processes and examples that have been used to train thousands of engineers to use TRIZ successfully
Contains real, relevant and recent case studies from major blue chip companies
Is illustrated throughout with specially commissioned full-colour cartoons that illustrate the various concepts and techniques and bring the theory to life
Turns good engineers into great engineers.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=C1YVvYIeBDIC


TRIZ - Systematic Innovation in Business & Management


Yeoh Teong San
First Fruits Sdn. Bhd., 01-Oct-2014 - Business & Economics - 238 pages


TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) is a powerful methodology which is able to improve a company's top-line and bottom-line. The top-line refers to a company's gross sales or revenues, whereas the bottom-line is a company's net earnings or net profits. The uniqueness of TRIZ is its ability to provide a structured and systematic approach, coupled with a suite of tools to enhance both top-line and bottom-line results. TRIZ can be used for creating new products to generate sales or making processes more efficient and effective to reduce operating costs and expenses.

TRIZ also enhances management capabilities by transforming a good manager to a great manager by acquiring tools to recognize contradictions when they arise and solve them without compromise.

In summary, TRIZ is a philosophy, process, and suite of tools. A total of 11 TRIZ tools (Function Analysis, Cause & Effect Chain Analysis, Perception Mapping, Ideality, S-curve, Trends of Engineering System Evolution, Trimming, Feature Transfer, Function Oriented Search, 9-Windows, and Engineering Contradiction) are discussed in detail.

Numerous examples and case studies are used to illustrate TRIZ applications in accelerating the ability to predict product, process, and service trends; identify unique value propositions for new products or services; circumvent patents of competitors; and solve age-old or chronic problems in both business and management fields.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=EwaEBwAAQBAJ


Innovation Management System - Presentation - Simon Tong
Hong Kong Society for Quality
http://www.hksq.org/Innovation-talk-20150124-Simon.pdf




Updated on  28 August 2017,  17 February 2017,  22 October 2016


Saturday, August 26, 2017

Productivity Science - Some Hypothesis like Statements





"When large companies get Agile right, the results can be stunning. Productivity can improve by a factor of three. Employee engagement, measured in quantitative surveys, increases dramatically too. New product features can be released within weeks or months rather than quarters or years. Rates of innovation rise, while the number of defects and do-overs declines. In the first year after going Agile, one bank’s development team increased the value delivered per dollar spent by 50%, simultaneously cutting development time in half and improving employee engagement by one-third."


Five Secrets to Scaling Up Agile
FEBRUARY 19, 2016 by Kaj Burchardi, Peter Hildebrandt, Erik Lenhard, Jérôme Moreau, and Benjamin Rehberg
https://www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/technology-digital-people-organization-five-secrets-scaling-up-agile/

Wednesday, August 23, 2017

Six Sigma - Contribution to GE - 1997


Excerpts from  GE Annual Report 1997
http://bib.kuleuven.be/ebib/data/jaarverslagen/GE_1997.pdf


The centerpiece of our dreams and aspirations "the drive for Six Sigma quality.

 “Six Sigma” is a disciplined methodology, led and taught by highly trained GE employees
called “Master Black Belts” and “Black Belts,” that focuses on moving every process that touches our
customers — every product and service — toward near-perfect quality.


Six sigma projects usually focus on improving our customers’ productivity and reducing their capital outlays,
while increasing the quality, speed and efficiency of our operations.

We didn’t invent Six Sigma — we learned it.

Motorola pioneered it and AlliedSignal successfully embraced it. The experiences of these two
companies, which they shared with us, made the launch of our initiative much simpler and faster.

GE had another huge advantage that accelerated our quality effort: we had a Company that was
open to change, hungry to learn and anxious to move quickly on a good idea.


At GE today —finding  the better way, the best idea, from whomever will share it with us, has become our central focus.

Nowhere has this learning environment, this search for the better idea, been more powerfully
demonstrated than in our drive for Six Sigma quality. Twenty-eight months ago, we became con-
vinced that Six Sigma quality could play a central role in GE’s future; but we believed, as well, that it
would take years of consistent communication, relentless emphasis and impassioned leadership
move this big Company on this bold new course.

We were wrong!
 Projections of our progress in Six Sigma, no matter how optimistic, have had to be junked every few months as gross underestimates. Six Sigma has spread like wildfire across the
Company, and it is transforming everything we do.


We had our annual Operating Managers Meeting — 500 of our senior business leaders
from around the globe — during the first week of January 1998, and it turned out to be a wonderful
snapshot of the way this learning Company — this new GE — has come to behave; and now, with Six Sigma, how it has come to work.

Today, in the uncountable number of business meetings across GE — both organized and “in-
the-hall” — the gates are open to the largest flood of innovative ideas in world business. These ideas
are generated, improved upon and shared by 350 business segments — or, as we think of them, 350
business laboratories. Today, these ideas center on spreading Six Sigma “best practices” across our
business operations.

At this particular Operating Managers Meeting, about 25 speakers, from across the Company and
around the world, excitedly described how Six Sigma is transforming the way their businesses work.

They shared what they had learned from projects such as streamlining the back room of a credit card
operation, or improving turnaround time in a jet engine overhaul shop, or “hit-rate” improvements
in commercial finance transactions. Most of the presenters focused on how their process improve-
ments were making their customers more competitive and productive:

• Medical Systems described how Six Sigma designs have produced a 10-fold increase in the life of CT scanner x-ray tubes — increasing the “uptime” of these machines and the profitability and level of patient care given by hospitals and other health care providers.

• Superabrasives — our industrial diamond business — described how Six Sigma quadrupled
its return on investment and, by improving yields, is giving it a full decadeÕs worth of capacity despite growing volume — without spending a nickel on plant and equipment capacity.

• Our railcar leasing business described a 62% reduction in turnaround time at its repair shops: an enormous productivity gain for our railroad and shipper customers and for a business that’s now two to three times faster than its nearest rival because of Six Sigma improvements. In the next phase, spread across the entire shop network, Black Belts and Green Belts, working with their teams, redesigned the overhaul process, resulting in a 50% further reduction in cycle time.

• The plastics business, through rigorous Six Sigma process work, added 300 million pounds of new capacity (equivalent to a “free plant”), saved $400 million in investment and will save another $400 million by 2000.

At our meeting, zealot after zealot shared stories of customers made more competitive, of credit
card and mortgage application processes streamlined, of inventories reduced, and of whole facto-
ries and businesses performing at levels never believed possible.

The sharing process was repeated at another level two weeks later in Paris, as 150 Master Black
Belts and Black Belts, from every GE business throughout Europe, came together to share and
learn quality technology. This learning is done in the boundaryless, transcultural language of Six
Sigma, where “CTQ’s” (critical to quality characteristics) or “DPMO’s” (defects per million oppor-
tunities) or “SPC” (statistical process control) have exactly the same meaning at every GE operation
from Tokyo to Delhi and from Budapest to Cleveland and Shanghai.

The meeting stories are anecdotal; big companies can make great presentations and impressive
charts. But the cumulative impact on the Company’s numbers is not anecdotal, nor a product of
charts. It is the product of 276,000 people executing ... and delivering the results of Six Sigma to our
bottom line.

Operating margin, a critical measure of business efficiency and profitability, hovered around
the 10% level at GE for decades.  With Six Sigma embedding itself deeper into Company operations, GE in 1997 went through the “impossible” 15% level — approaching 16% — and we are optimistic about the upside.

Six Sigma, even at this relatively early stage, delivered more than $300 million to our 1997
operating income. In 1998, returns will more than double this operating profit impact.
Six Sigma is quickly becoming part of the genetic code of our future leadership. Six Sigma
training is now an ironclad prerequisite for promotion to any professional or managerial position
in the Company — and a requirement for any award of stock options.

Senior executive compensation is now heavily weighted toward Six Sigma commitment and suc-
cess — success now increasingly defined as “eatable” financial returns, for our customers and for us.
There are now nearly 4,000 full-time, fully trained Black Belts and Master Black Belts: Six
Sigma instructors, mentors and project leaders. There are more than 60,000 Green Belt part-time
project leaders who have completed at least one Six Sigma project.

Already, Black Belts and Master Black Belts who are finishing Six Sigma assignments have become
the most sought-after candidates for senior leadership jobs in the Company, including vice presidents and chief financial officers at some of our businesses. Hundreds have already moved upward
through the pipeline. They are true believers, speaking the language of the future, energized by
successful projects under their belts, and drawing other committed zealots upward with them.

In the early 1990s, we efined ourselves as a company of boundaryless people with a thirst for learning and a compulsion to share

Now it is Six Sigma that is  permeating much of what we do all day.



We are feverish on the subject of Six Sigma quality as it relates to products, services and people — maybe a bit unbalanced —  because we see it as the ultimate way to make real our dreams of
what this great Company could become.

Six Sigma has turned up the voltage in every GE business across the globe, energizing and
exciting all of us and moving us closer than ever to what we have always wanted to become: more than a hundred-billion-dollar global enterprise with the agility, customer focus and fire in the belly of a small company.


In our 1994 letter to you, we addressed the perennial question put to management teams, which is “how much more can be squeezed from the lemon?” We claimed, then, that there was in fact unlimited juice in this “lemon,” and that none of this had anything to do with “squeezing” at all.
We believed there was an ocean of creativity and passion and energy in GE people that had no bottom and no shores. We believed that then, and we are convinced of it today. And when we said that
there was an “infinite capacity to improve everything,” we believed that as well — viscerally — but
there was no methodology or discipline attached to that belief. There is now. It’s Six Sigma quality,
along with a culture of learning, sharing and unending excitement.


SIX SIGMA PRINCIPLES


Six Sigma is based on the following basic principles.

1. Y=f(X) + ε: All outcomes and results, the dependent variable (the Y) are determined by inputs (the Xs) with some degree of uncertainty (ε).


2. To change or improve results (the Y), you have to focus on the inputs (the Xs), modify them. (In the six sigma method, values of different variables X are changed systematically and resulting output is recorded and analyzed to find the best combination of values.

3. Variation is everywhere, and it degrades consistent, good performance. Your job is to find it and minimize it!

4. You get minimum variation for a particular combination Xs for given set of X and some times by including more input variables.

5. Valid measurements and data are required foundations for consistent, breakthrough improvement.

6. Only a critical few inputs have significant effect on the output. Concentrate on the critical few. There is some effort involved in determining the set of Xs that have significant effect on the output.


Philosophy – Process inputs control the outputs and determine their level of quality.

Focus – An unending quest for improving business processes.

Methods – Known as DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control) and DMADV (define, measure, analyze, design, verify).

Measure of Success – Ultimately reducing defects to 3.4 per one million opportunities, through iterative application of six sigma methodology to understand the process better.


Updated 24 August 2017, 3 March 2012