Thursday, August 27, 2015

Analysis of Material - Methods Efficiency Improvement Analysis - Illustrations

Analysis of Material

Material cost is a very important part of the total cost of any product. Therefore the analyst should check the material for the possibility of using lower cost materials.

Questions. The following questions will prove suggestive in connection with an analysis of material:

1. Does the material specified appear suitable for the purpose for which it is to be used?

2. Could a less expensive material be substituted that would function as well?

M30 concrete in place of M35 concrete in India.

3. Could a lighter gage material be used?

Example: Reduction of automobile body sheet thickness by Maruti Suzuki in India.

4. Is the material furnished in suitable condition for use?

5. Could the supplier perform additional work upon the material that would make it better suited for its use?

6. Is the size of the material the most economical?

7. If bar stock or tubing, is the material straight?

8. If a casting or forging, is the excess stock sufficient for machining purposes but not excessive?

9. Can the machinability of the material be improved by heat-treatment or in other ways?

10. Do castings have hard spots or burned-in core sand that should be eliminated?

11. Are castings properly cleaned and have all fins, gate ends, and riser bases been removed?

12. Is material sufficiently clean and free from rust?

13. If coated with a preserving compound, how does this compound affect dies?

14. Is material ordered in amounts and sizes that permit its utilization with a minimum amount of waste, scrap, or short ends?

15. Is material uniform and reasonably free from flaws and defects?

16. Is material utilized to the best advantage during processing?

Change of design and cutting patter in Maruti Suzuki in India.

17. Where yield from a given amount of material depends upon ability of the operator, is any record of yield kept?

18. Is miscellaneous material used for assembly, such as nails, screws, wire, solder, rivets, paste, and washers, suitable?

19. Are the indirect or supply materials such as cutting oil, molding sand, or lubricants best suited to the job?

20. Are materials used in connection with the process, such as gas, fuel oil, coal, coke, compressed air, water, electricity, acids, and paints, suitable, and is their use controlled and economical?

Special materials will evoke special questions, but the list here given will indicate the kind of questions that should be asked and will stimulate suggestions for improvement on many kinds of the more common materials.

Analysis of Tolerances and Inspection Requirements - Method Efficiency Improvement Analysis - Illustrations

The following questions should be raised and, as always, answered only after careful consideration:

1. What are the inspection requirements of this operation?

2. What are the requirements of the preceding operation?

3. What are the requirements of the following operation?

4. Will changing the requirements of a previous operation make this operation easier to perform?

5. Will changing the requirement of this operation make a subsequent operation easier to perform?

6. Are tolerance, allowance, finish, and other requirements necessary?

7. Are they suitable for the purpose the part has to play in the finished product ?

8. Can the requirements be raised to improve quality without increasing cost?

9. Will lowering the requirements materially reduce costs?

10. Can the quality of the finished product be improved in any way even beyond present requirements?

Illustrations to be added over time.

Analysis of All Operations in a Process - Method Efficiency Improvement Analysis - Illustrations

1. Can the operation being analyzed be eliminated by changing the procedure or the operations?

2. Can it be combined with another operation?

3. Can it be subdivided and the various parts added to other operations ?

4. Can part of the operation be performed more effectively as a separate operation?

5. Can the operation being analyzed be performed during the idle period of another operation?

6. Is the sequence of operations the best possible?

7. Would changing the sequence affect this operation in any way?

8. Should this operation be done in another department to save cost or handling?

9. If several or all operations including the one being analyzed were performed under the group system of wage payment, would advantages accrue?

10. Should a more complete study of operations be made by means of an operation process chart?

Individual Operation Purpose Analysis - Methods Efficiency Improvement Analysis Illustrations

1. What is the purpose of the operation?

2. Is the result accomplished by the operation necessary?

3. If so, what makes it necessary?

4. Was the operation established to correct a difficulty experienced in the final assembly?

5. If so, did it really correct it?

6. Is the operation necessary because of the improper performance of a previous operation?

7. Was the operation established to correct a condition that has since been corrected otherwise?

8. If the operation is done to improve appearance, is the added cost justified by added salability?

9. Can the purpose of the operation be accomplished better in any other way?

10. Can the supplier of the material perform the operation more economically?

Wednesday, August 19, 2015




CONSIDERED in relation to the time during which it has
been applied to the trades, scientific motion study can show
most satisfactory results.

The workers in the field as well as in the office have been
quick to appreciate and adopt the new methods suggested
by motion economy.

This has been especially the case in the crafts. Nearly
every proficient workman loves his trade. He loves the
joy of achievement. He can achieve most when useless
motions have been eliminated for him, and he welcomes
improvements, as the bricklayers have welcomed the brick
coming right side up on the packet.


To the casual reader it may seem that the task of evolving standard practice from usual present practice, and
from the best practice, is simply a case of observing, recording, and eliminating. The student will see that it
requires the closest concentration to do even the necessary scientific observing and recording, while to deduce and systematize standard motions for any one trade would furnish a life work for several trained scientists.

It is a difficult task for an inexperienced or untrained observer to divide an operation correctly into its motions.  Enumerating the variables that affect each motion is a task big enough to satisfy the most ambitious student of waste elimination.


We have found it helpful in recording our observations to use charts. Some such form as that shown on
pages 88 and 89 is used.

This chart is one made during an observation of bricklaying before the invention of the packet, the packet scaffold, and the fountain trowel.

The operation of laying a brick was divided into the
motions of which it consisted (column i). The usual
(present) practice of the time (given as "the wrong way,"
column 2) showed the units into which the operation was
divided. The best practice of the time ("the right way,"
column 3, now obsolete) was charted in such a way that
its relation from a motion standpoint to the usual practice
was clearly shown.

Column 4 shows how the usual practice may be trans-
formed into the best practice. It would serve as an in-
struction card to the workman, showing him not only
where his method needed to be improved but also exactly
how to improve it.

This chart, together with a plan showing the workman
where he should put the stock and where he should place
his feet (Fig. 14), and with pictures showing how he should
lay the brick, etc., proved most successful for instruction
as well as for recording.

At first glance this chart, and the others like it, which
we used at that time, seem very crude. In fact, compared
to what has since been done to standardize operations,
they are crude. But they mark a distinct phase of motion
study. They show plainly, as careful reading will prove,
that an earnest study of motions will automatically pro-
mote the growth of the study.

For example, study of column 4 in the sample chart
given led to the invention of the packet scaffold, the
packet, the fountain trowel, and several other of the best
devices, and the u packet-on- the- wall" method now used
in brickwork.

These inventions in their turn necessitated an entirely
new set of motions to perform the operation of laying a

So, likewise, the progression also went on before the
days of conscious motion study: observation, explanation,
invention, elimination, and again observation, in an upward
helix of progress.

The great point to be observed is this: Once the vari-
ables of motions are determined, and the laws of underly-
ing motions and their efficiency deduced, conformity to
these laws will result in standard motions, standard tools,
standard conditions, and standard methods of performing
the operations of the trades.

Conformity to these laws allows standard practice to be
attained and used. If the standard methods are deduced
before the equipment, tools, surroundings, etc., are stand-
ardized, the invention of these standard means is as sure
as the appearance of a celestial body at the time and place
where mathematics predicts that it will appear.

It is as well to recognize first as last that real progress
from the best present method to the standard method can
never be made solely by elimination. The sooner this is
recognized the better. Elimination is often an admirable
makeshift. But the only real progress comes through a
reconstruction of the operation, building it up of stand-
ardized units, or elements.

It is also well to recognize the absolute necessity of the
trained scientific investigator. The worker cannot, by him-
self, arrange to do his work in the most economical manner
in accordance with the laws of motion study. Oftentimes,
in fact nearly always, the worker will believe that the new
method takes longer than the old method. At least he
will be positive that many parts, or elements, of the pro-
cess when done under the new method take longer than
under the old style, and will not be in sympathy with the
scheme because he is sure that the new way is not so
efficient as his old way. All of which shows that the worker
himself cannot tell which are the most advantageous
motions. He must judge by the fatigue that he feels, or


else by the quantity of output accomplished in a given
time. To judge by the quantity of output accomplished in
a given time is more of a test of effort than a test of mo-
tion study, and oftentimes that element that will produce
the most output is the one that will cause the least fatigue.

The difference in amount of merit between any two
methods can perhaps be best determined by timing the
elements of the motions used in each. This is the method
of attack usually accepted as best, because it separates each
motion into its variables and analyzes them one at a time.
It is out of the question to expect a workman to do such
timing and to do his work at the same time. Furthermore,
it is an art in itself to take time-study observations, an art
that probably takes longer to master than does shorthand,
typewriting, telegraphy, or drafting.

Few workers have had an opportunity to learn the art
of making and using time-study observations, because
our school educators have not had any mental grasp
of the subject themselves. Add to the difficulties to be
overcome in acquiring the knowledge of observing, re-
cording, and analyzing the time-study records, the knowl-
edge necessary to build up synthetically the correct method
with each element strictly in accordance with the laws
of motion economy each by itself and when used together
in the particular determined sequence, and you will see
the reason why the worker by himself has not devised,
cannot, and never will be expected to devise, the ultimate
method of output. It does not then, after all, seem so
queer that the workman's output can always be doubled
and oftentimes more than tripled by scientific motion study.
Again, scientifically attained methods only can become
Ultimate methods.

Any method which seems after careful study to have
attained perfection, using absolutely the least number of
most effective, shortest motions, may be thrown aside
when a new way of transporting or placing material or
men is introduced. It is pitiful to think of the time, money,
strength, and brains that have been wasted on devising
and using wonderfully clever but not fundamentally de-
rived methods of doing work, which must inevitably be
discarded for the latter.

The standardizing of the trades will utilize every atom
of such heretofore wasted energy.

The standardizing of the trades affords a definite best
method of doing each element.

Having but one standard method of doing each element
divides the amount of time-study data necessary to take
by a number equal to the number of different equally good
methods that could be used.

The greatest step forward can be made only when time-
study data can be made by one and used by all. A system
of interchange and cooperation in the use of the data of
scientific management can then be used by all persons

This reduction and simplification of taking time study is
the real reason for insistence upon making and maintain-
ing standards for the largest down to the smallest insig-
nificant tool or device used.

Much toward standardizing the trades has already been
done. In this, as in almost countless other lines of activity,
the investigator turns oftenest with admiration to the
work of Frederick W. Taylor. It is the never-ceasing
marvel concerning this man that age cannot wither nor
custom stale his work. After many a weary day's study
the investigator awakes from a dream of greatness to
find that he has only worked out a new proof for a problem
that Taylor has already solved.

Time study, the instruction card, functional foreman-
ship, the differential rate piece method of compensation,
and numerous other scientifically derived methods of de-
creasing costs and increasing output and wages these are
by no means his only contributions toward standardizing
the trades whose value it would be difficult to overesti-
mate; they are but a few of the means toward attaining
standards which have been placed by Taylor, their dis-
coverer, within the hands of any man willing to use them.

The great need to-day in standardizing the trades is for
cooperation. In other times all excellent methods or
means were held as "trade secrets," sometimes lost to the
world for generations until rediscovered. The day for
this is past. Thinkers of to-day recognize that the work
to be done is so great that, given all that every one has
accomplished and is accomplishing, there is room and to
spare for every worker who cares to enter the field. Co-
operation and team work is the crying need.

Conservation and comparison of knowledge, experi-
ments, data and conclusions are what we need. The
various engineering journals are to be commended for
r:cognizing the importance of this, and for furnishing an
excellent means for recording and spreading much needed

The ideal conservator of knowledge in this, as in all
other branches, would be the United States government.
The government should maintain a permanent bureau, with
experiment stations, as is done with the Department of

Individual investigators, corporations, and colleges, all
would be willing to turn over the results of their work to
such a government bureau. The colleges would cooperate
with such a bureau, as do the agricultural colleges with
the Department of Agriculture. The bulletins of such a
bu"eau would be invaluable to the men in the trades, as
are the agricultural bulletins to the farmers.

The Department of Agriculture is an excellent model.
The form for a department or bureau of trades is all at
hand. It is only necessary to translate the language of
agriculture into the language of labor. It is only through
such a bureau that the trades can formally be standardized.

Such a bureau would have two main tasks: (i) To sub-
classify the trades; (2) To standardize the trades.
The first task should be successfully completed before
the second is undertaken.

We have spoken briefly, in considering cost of motions,
o the necessity of separating those motions that require
skill from those that require nothing but strength and

This sub-classifying of the trades according to the types
or grades of motions that they use, or according to the
brawn, brain, training, and skill required to make the
motions, will cut down production costs. It will raise
the standards of all classes. It will do away with differ-
ences between employers and employees. It will eliminate
unnecessary waste. It will raise the wages of all workers.
It will reduce the cost of living.

We might call such a sub-classification as desired a
" functional" classification of the trades.

For example, for brickwork we recommend five classes:

Class A. Ornamental and exterior face brick and
molded terra cotta.

Class B. Interior face tiers that do not show at com-
pletion, where strong, plumb, and straight work only is

Class C. Filling tiers where only strength is needed.

Class D. Putting fountain trowels and brick packs on
the wall near the place, and in the manner where the other
three classes can reach them with greatest economy of

Class E. Pack loaders, brick cullers, and stage builders.

The pay of the A and B classes should be considerably
higher than is customary for bricklayers. The pay of the
C, D, and E classes should be lower than is customary for
bricklayers, but much higher than the pay of laborers.
This classification will raise the pay of all five classes
higher than they could ever obtain in the classes that they
would ordinarily work in under the present system, yet
the resulting cost of the labor on brickwork would be
much less, and each class would be raised in its standing
and educated for better work and higher wages.

In the case of brickwork this new classification is a cry-
ing necessity, as the cost of brickwork must be reduced
to a point where it can compete with concrete. Im-
provements in making, methods of mixing, transporting,
and densifying concrete in the metal molds of to-day
have put the entire brickwork proposition where it can be
used for looks only, because for strength, imperviousness,
quickness of construction, lack of union labor troubles,
and low cost, brickwork cannot compete with concrete
under present conditions.

Having sub-classified the trades, the second step is to
standardize them.

And both classification and standardization demand
motion study.

The United States government has already spent mil-
lions and used many of the best of minds on the subject
of motion study as applied to war; the motions of the
sword, gun, and bayonet drill are wonderfully perfect from
the standpoint of the requirements of their use. This same
study should be applied to the arts of peace.

It is obvious that this work must and will be done in
time. But there is inestimable loss in every hour of delay.
The waste of energy of the workers in the industries to-day
is pitiful. But it is far more important that the coming
generation of workers should be scientifically trained.

The science of management of the future will demand
that the trades be taught in accordance with the motion
standards of a United States Bureau of Standardization
of Mechanical Trades. The present method of teaching
an apprentice is the most unbusinesslike event that takes
place in any of our industrial institutions.

We have never heard of a trades school, manual training
school, or technical school that makes any attempt to
solve questions of motion study. The usual process is to
teach a student or apprentice to do his work well first,
and after he has finally accomplished the art of making or
doing the thing in question, then to expect him to learn
to do it quickly. This process is a relic of the dark ages.
A novice should be taught to do what he is trying to do
with certain definite motions, and to repeat the opera-
tion until he is able automatically to use the standard
motions and do good work.

If an apprentice bricklayer, blacksmith, or tool sharpener,
for example, is not instructed to count his motions when
doing a certain piece of work, he will surely get into the
habit of making extra motions that cannot be omitted
later without almost as much effort as that spent in learn-
ing the trade. There is little incentive for an old mechanic
to teach a boy so that he will excel his teacher, and per-
haps run him out of a job about the time that he, the
apprentice, becomes expert.

One of the most common causes for neglecting the
important subject of motion study is that the boss of the
establishment is not himself really a master of the trade
that is being taught, or, if he was master once, has for-
gotten it because there are no books or systems that have
so described, charted, and illustrated his trade as to refresh
his memory.

Again the teacher is often a mechanic who is not trained to impart what knowledge he has, has never studied pedagogy, and is expected to do a full day's work at the same time that he is teaching his apprentice.

The arts and trades of human beings should be studied,
charted, photographed, and motion-pictured, and every employer, apprentice, and student should be able to receive bulletins of his trade for a sum equal to the cost to a farmer of a bulletin from the Department of Agriculture instructing how to increase the outputs of cows, hens, and bees.

One great aid toward cutting down the work of every one
out of the trades as well as in, would be the standardizing
of our written alphabet to conform to the laws of motion
study. The most offhand analysis of our written alpha-
bet shows that it is full of absolutely useless strokes, all ** f
which require what are really wasted motions.

Consider the single example of the first stroke on the
first letter of each word. Here is a motion that can be
eliminated wholly. While its existence is necessary in type
that represents handwriting or imitates engraved plate
work, and in enameled separate letters of window signs, its
adoption and use in handwriting is of no purpose and is
wrong from the standpoint of motion economy.

Each letter of our written alphabet is a natural devia-
tion from our printed alphabet that is the result of leaving
the pencil on the paper.

Now the time has arrived for revising our written lan-
guage by means of a new scientifically invented alphabet
specially devised for the purpose of securing clearer writ-
ing, made of connected letters, each designed of itself and in
connection with all the other letters, so that it conforms to
the laws of motion economy. This is not a suggestion that
we should adopt stenographic signs for words or sounds,
although a general knowledge of one standard steno-
graphic system would also be a great benefit to a nation.

The suggestion is, that in as much as it is the aim of
our nation that all citizens should be able to read and
write, a new written alphabet should be devised for us
that shall conform to the laws of motion study, that we
all can increase either our outputs in writing or else that we
all may be able to do such writing as we are obliged to do
in less time.

It is to be hoped that an international society of highly
trained educators, similar to those composing the Simplified
Spelling Board, may be called together, as was the Sim-
plified Spelling Board, to give this matter immediate
attention. A written alphabet for all languages of the
world should be determined and used not only by the
users of each language, but also by the societies advocating
and promulgating such world's second or international lan-
guages as Volapiik and Esperanto.

One great drawback to the more rapid progress of any
artificial or second language has been the difficulty of
reading the correspondence between enthusiasts who were
proficient in speaking their thoroughly agreed upon inter-
national language.

It would not be desirable to abandon our present written
alphabet. There are now literally hundreds of different
styles of lettering that all can read, yet how few of them
can any of us make with pen or pencil.

To add one more style of lettering to the now existing
hundreds could scarcely be considered as confusing by even
those who are constitutionally opposed to changes in any-

Therefore, there should be devised one more style of
lettering, specially adapted to cutting down the time of
writing and adding to the general legibility when written

Let this be our second written language. Let us use
the present system and the new one. Let the generations
to come have the benefit of the application of science to
their future writing, and let the present style be also used,

provided it does not die the natural death in the combat
of the survival of the fittest.

We may have to wait for international coinage, inter-
national postage stamps, international courts, international
arbitration, and international weights and measures; but
there can be no reason for not having an international
system of written alphabetical characters, and while hav-
ing it let us decide in favor of that system that fulfills
the requirements of motion study, both of the hand in
making, and of the eye in reading.


In the meantime, while we are waiting for the politicians
und educators to realize the importance of this subject and
to create the bureaus and societies to undertake and com-
plete the work, we need not be idle. There is work in
abundance to be done.

Motion study must be applied to all the industries.
Our trade schools and colleges can:

1. Observe the best work of the best workers.

2. Photograph the methods used.

3. Record the methods used.

4. Record outputs.

5. Record costs.

6. Deduce laws.

7. Establish laboratories "for trying out laws."

8. Embody laws in instructions.

9. Publish bulletins.

10. Cooperate to spread results and to train the rising

This is the era now. We have a scientific method of attack, and we have also scientific methods of teaching.

The stereoscopic camera and stereoscope, the motion picture machines, and the stereopticon enable us to observe, record, and teach as one never could in the past.


The " pack-on-the-wall "method is the latest development and is an actual direct
result of motion study. It has again  changed the entire method of laying brick by reducing the kind, number, sequence and length of motions. It reduces the fatigue of the bricklayer and he is therefore able to make more rapid motions.

The economic value of motion study has been proved by the fact that by means of it workmen's outputs have been more than tripled, production costs lowered, and wages increased simultaneously.

This book is written for the express purpose of calling to the attention of the nation that what has been done in a few trades can be done in each and every trade.

The most important matter before the public to-day is the creation and operation of a department at Washington for discovering, collecting, conserving and disseminating data relating to Taylor's method of Intensive Management commonly called Scientific Management.

MOTION STUDY VARIABLES - Frank B. Gilbreth - Part 6



The necessity of the motion is such an important variable that an investigator is tempted at first glance to
divide all motions into necessary and unnecessary, and
to eliminate with one stroke those that appear to him
unnecessary. A more thorough investigation will be
apt to prove that no such summary elimination is

A motion may be an unnecessary motion in a necessary
sequence, or it may be a necessary motion in a certain
sequence, but the whole sequence may be unnecessary or

Example. In opening a paper bag of cement the aver-
age untrained laborer usually cuts the bag in two and re-
moves the paper in several pieces and with many motions.
The correct way is to cut the bottom with a shovel and
pull the bag upward in one piece by grasping the bag just
above the string.

This example shows both how motions may be unneces-
sary in themselves and how they may belong to a sequence
that is unnecessary.

The only final solution as to the necessity of a motion
will come when the trades are completely standardized.
It is impossible to determine whether or not a motion is
absolutely necessary until the method of doing the work
in which it is used is standard.

Examples. i. Motions which were relatively proved
necessary in laying brick by the " pick-and-dip " method
or " stringing-mortar " method, the brick being lifted from
the stock platform, became absolutely unnecessary when
the "packet-on-the-wall" method of handling brick was

2. The same thing is true of motions eliminated by
handling mortar in a fountain trowel.

The final solution of the problem of necessity of motions
will be discussed later, though the subject is so large that
no amount of discussion could do more than touch it.


The determination of the path which will result in the
greatest economy of motion and the greatest increase of
output is a subject for the closest investigation and the
most scientific determination. Not until data are accumulated by trained observers can standard paths be
adopted. The laws underlying physics, physiology, and
psychology must be considered and followed. In the
meantime, merely applying the results of observation will
reduce motions and costs and increase output to an
amazing degree.

The path most desirable is usually that which permits
gravitation to assist in carrying the material to place.

Example. We have found that the most economical
height for laying brick is twenty-four inches above where
the bricklayer stands, while it is most economical to pick
the brick from a height about three feet above where the
bricklayer stands; that is, about one foot higher than the
top of the wall where the brick is to be laid.

The path is affected by the direction that the material
is to be shoved as it moves into its final resting place.

Examples. When the packet is placed on the wall it
should be placed so that the brick can be picked up and
moved in a comparatively straight line with the direction
that the brick will be shoved for filling a joint.

In theory the ideal path would be in a line of quickest
speed from the stock platform to the wall.

In practice it is seldom that the most economical path for
carrying a brick or mortar from the stock platform to the
wall is exactly a straight line from one to the other. It
will generally be most economical to move the brick in
the path that will bend the arms the least and that will
permit almost a swing from the shoulder.


Each motion should be made so as to be most economically combined with the next motion, like the billiard player who plays for position.

The direction in which a motion is made may affect the
time required for a subsequent motion.

Example. In laying brick the motion of placing the
mortar for the end joint can be done quickest if it is done
in the direction of the next motion, such, for example, as
the next motion that puts the trowel in the position to
cut off the hanging mortar.

The sequence of motions in bricklaying, that determines
when the particular motion is to be made that puts the
mortar in the end joint, depends upon whether the "pick-
and-dip" or the " stringing-mortar " method is used.

When the motions are made in the correct sequence,
many of them can be combined so that two, and in some
cases three, motions can be made as one motion, in but
little more time than is required for one motion.

Example. Cutting off mortar, buttering the end of the
laid brick, and reaching for more mortar all as one motion,
in the " pick-and-dip " method.


Usually, the faster the motions, the more output. There
are other advantages to speed of motions besides the fact
that they require less time. Speed increases momentum,
and this momentum may be utilized to do work.

Example. The momentum of the brick helps to shove
the mortar better into the joint.

Again, high outputs are generally the result of the
habit of speed in motions. Habits of speed are hard to
form, and they are hard to break.

Next to fewest motions, speed of motions is the most
important factor of high record of outputs.

The list of variables here given makes no claim to being
complete. The field of study is so immense that it is impossible as yet to give a complete and detailed method of

It will be noted in reading the discussion of the variables that it has been found extremely difficult to handle
each one separately. It is needless to tell the student, the
investigator, the cost-reducing manager, that, difficult as
the task is, for the best results each variable must be
studied alone. The effects of all variables but one must
be eliminated, or, better perhaps, all variables but one
must be maintained constant.

Quicker results may often be obtained by studying
several variables simultaneously, and for short jobs this
may be advisable. But for long jobs of repetitive work
there is no way so accurate and satisfactory as studying
one variable at a time. 

MOTION STUDY VARIABLES - Frank B. Gilbreth - Part 5


A DISCUSSION of variables of the motion opens up a field
so large that it is only possible here to attempt to show
the method of investigation, and to show that each vari-
able is a necessary factor in making motions standard,
leaving to the universities and to properly created and
equipped bureaus of the national government the task of
reducing motion study to an exact science.


In considering acceleration of speed as an element of
any motion, we must determine:

1. The amount of acceleration that it is possible or

economical to ebtain.

2. The means by which the acceleration can be obtained.

3. The effect of the acceleration on

a. Economy in time required to make the motion.

b. Economy in time required for rest to overcome

the fatigue of having made the motion.

Examples. i. Laying brick on a wall from a floor,
from the height of the floor level up to three feet eight
inches high above the floor, can be done with greatest speed



when the brick to be picked up are each maintained at a
height of one foot three inches, plus two-thirds the height
that the wall is higher than the level of t he floor on which
the bricklayer stands. The brick to be picked up should
never be higher than three feet eight inches under any

By maintaining the height of the brick to be laid in this
relative position to the height of the wall, the brick will
always be in a position that permits the bricklayer to
accelerate the speed of transportation of the brick by using
the path of the quickest speed.

While bricklayers know nothing about this in theory,
they very soon discover it in practice by means of their
higher recorded output. Greater outputs will be notice-
able as an immediate result of maintaining the brick as
nearly as possible at the heights above stated.

2. In laying the filling tiers in any one course, it is most
economical to lay the farthest filling tier first and the next
farthest tier second, and so on. This enables the brick-
layer to accelerate the speed of transportation of the brick
up to the instant that it is deposited in the mortar.

The above practice is, of course, much more important
on shove-joint work than on brick-and-brick construction.

3. The possible benefits from acceleration should be
taken into consideration when determining the sequence
in which the tiers shall be laid. The position of the feet
of the bricklayer is an important factor in obtaining the
acceleration desired. For the best results the feet should


be on separate springy planks, so that the transportation
of the brick can be speeded up, in addition to the speed of
the arms by simply throwing the body by the aid of the
spring of the plank. (See Fig. 13.)


Nearly all often-repeated motions become automatic.
This is especially true of motions that require no careful
supervision of mind or eye.

The automaticity of motions is of great assistance to
the worker whose training and methods conform to stand-
ardized motions. This fact makes it necessary to have
the apprentice taught the right motions first, last, and

The automaticity of motions is a hindrance to the
worker who has been accustomed to old-fashioned sur-
roundings, equipment, and tools, and who must adapt
himself to standard surroundings.

Example. A remarkable example of making unneces-
sary motions as a matter of habit is noticeable in places
where the local bricklayers have been accustomed to laying
brick that have a decided difference in the top and bottom.
This difference makes it necessary to lay no brick upside
down on the line. When these bricklayers first worked
from packets with the brick in the right position to seize
right-side up, they would invariably flop and spin each
brick in their hands, first wrong-side up and then back
again to the original right-side-up position.


The worker who has been trained wrong also finds it
difficult to change his habits when he conforms to standard

Example. Occasionally we find the bricklayer who
will spin or flop a brick that is to be laid in the middle of
the wall, although it makes no difference which face of the
brick is uppermost in these tiers.

The best way to cure motions that are not necessary but
that are made from force of habit is to count the motions
aloud, endeavoring to keep down to the standard number
of standard motions.

When work is done by both hands simultaneously, it
can be done quickest and with least mental effort if the
work is done by both hands in a similar manner; that is
to say, when one hand makes the same motions to the
right as the other does to the left.

Most work is accomplished when both hands start work
at the same time, and when the motions can be made at
the same relative position on each side of a central fore
and aft vertical plane dividing the worker's body sym-

Even if motions cannot be planned to be similar for
each hand and performed simultaneously, the plane in
which the work is to be done should be carefully located.

If motions are so arranged as to be balanced, as sug-
gested, it is possible not only to take advantage of automa-
ticity, but also to cut down jar to the body. It is on this
well-known principle that the shockless jarring machine is


built. Balanced motions counteract each other. The result
is, less bracing of the body is necessary, and less fatigue


A motion may be combined with motions that are
(a) similar to it, and (b) dissimilar to it.

(a) If the motions combined are similar to it, advantage
must be taken of the automaticity. Care must also be
taken that all the motions made in a series of similar
motions are necessary. Sometimes one effective motion
is preferable to several not so effective.

Examples. i . When tapping a brick down to grade
with a trowel, one brisk tap will do the work as well as
several light taps, and with much less time and effort.

2. If it is necessary to spread mortar on a face tier, one
stroke of the trowel will do the work as well as several.

(b) If the motions combined are dissimilar, two motions
may often be transformed into one.

Example. - - The motion used to spread mortar may be
combined with the motion used to butter the end of the
brick laid just before the mortar was thrown. Thus, the
two operations may be transformed into one, and a saving
of time and motions will result. In fact, so doing may
have other distinct advantages, such as leaving better
keying for plastering direct upon the wall.

This subject of combinations of motions can barely be


touched here. Its full treatment involves all other vari-
ables, and it can never be considered standardized till
each separate motion is a standard.


The cost of motions, absolute and relative, is a subject
too large for any person, firm, or corporation to hope to
cover. If complete data are ever to be gathered on it, the
cost keeping, recording, and deducing will have to be done
by the government.

But all work done by the individual investigator will
result in real cost reducing, with increase of output, which
is the ultimate purpose of all motion study.

The relative cost of labor and material must be considered.

Examples. i. A bricklayer should never stop to pick
up dropped mortar. The mortar dropped is not so val-
uable as the motions necessary to save it.

2. That quality of mortar that is easiest handled by
the bricklayer is usually cheapest. The cost of grinding
up the lumps in the sand, cement, and lime is less than the
cost of the motions necessary to pick the lumps out with
a trowel.

3. It is usually cheaper to fill a closer, say less than one-
half a brick in size, on the interior tiers, with even the best
of cement, than it is to cut a special piece of brick to fit or
to walk a few steps to find one the right size. The extra
cost of the mortar is negligible compared with the cost of
the motions.


The relative cost of motions of higher and lower grades
of labor must also be considered.

It is obvious that, other things being equal, it is cheaper
to have a low-priced man instead of a high-priced man
make the same motion; but only the most careful study
can determine all of the motions that could be taken from
the high-priced man and allotted to one or more grades of
lower-priced men. This can never be wholly or properly
accomplished until our present trades, with their inher-
ited conditions and traditions, have been reclassified to
meet modern conditions.

In some trades it is very difficult to effect such division
of work, as unions are opposed to having anything relating
to skilled work done by laborers.

Examples. i. In the most highly unionized districts
carpenters only are allowed to unload the rough lumber
from the cars, and none but carpenters are allowed to
transport, lift, and erect, as well as to fabricate it.

2. In bricklaying the case is slightly different. The
work of transporting the brick to the place where they are
to be laid has always been done by tenders and laborers.
The bricklayer never wheels or carries brick. This is a
tradition long handed down. Yet he is most jealous that
no part of his own work shall be done by a tender or
a laborer.

During the time that brick construction was practically
without competitors in its field, the bricklayer could insist
on his ancient privileges and prosper.


The inroads of concrete, both plain and reinforced, how-
ever, have changed conditions, and the bricklayer himself
is, more than any other one factor, the cause of many cases
of substitutions of concrete for brick.

The architecture of any country is determined by the
relative cost of building materials in place, and the history
of the world shows that the way to get the most of any one
thing used is to make it the lowest in price.

The one thing that will reduce the price of brickwork
more than any other is to reduce the cost of the motions,

After the laws underlying motion study have all been
applied, the cost of motions can still be reduced from one-
third to one-half by separating the motions of the brick-
layer into at least two classes, such as, for example:

1. Those that require skill.

2. Those that require nothing but strength, endurance,
and speed.

Those that require skill should be divided into several
classes, according to the amount of skill required; those
that chiefly require skill should be handled by mechanics,
and those that chiefly require strength, endurance, and
speed should be handled by specially trained laborers.
This is the only way to enable brickwork to compete with
concrete, when all of the architects, engineers, owners,
and contractors shall have learned the full possibilities of

It will be urged that such division of the work of
bricklaying will lower the general skill of the bricklayers


as a class. Far from it! All operations requiring skill
will remain in the hands of the bricklayer, who, escaping
all work that unskilled hands could do, will have the more
time and energy to devote to the "art" element of his work.

But we are not at this time discussing " brickwork as a
lost art" -we cite bricklaying here as an example of the
cost of motions, the result of the effects of cost of motions,
and of the possibilities and importance of motion study as
a method of attack in cost reducing and in standardizing
the trades for the greatest possible economy.

What greater service can the bricklayer do both his trade
and the people who own or occupy houses than to reduce
the cost of the motions in brickwork without reducing his
own wages or increasing his hours?

The elimination of wastes is the problem that has been
forced to the attention of the entire world to-day, and of
America particularly. The elimination of wastes in the
trades offers the largest field for savings.

Every trade must be reclassified, and must have the
brawn motions separated from the skill motions. Scien-
tific division of the work to be done is as sure to result in
higher wages and lower production costs as did F. W.
Taylor's separating the planning from the performing.

The reason that our country is not astounded and con-
fused at the appalling unnecessary loss to its inhabitants
on account of unnecessary, wasteful, and improper mo-
tions of its workers is due to ignorance of the existence of
this loss, and to ignorance of any method of eliminating it.


The loss due to the present classification of the trades
alone is probably more than sufficient to pension, under
full pay, one-half of the workers of the country; is cer-
tainly enough to enable all of the women and children in
the trades to remain out of the trades and be paid at
their regular wages.

While such action is not even recommended, the illus-
tration is used to emphasize the enormous waste going
on daily and yearly.

That we go on year after year submitting to this waste
because our present trades are handled in accordance
with ancient conditions entirely out of place in our pres-
ent civilization, is no longer necessary and without

Let the government call its scientific managerial experts
together and make a test of one trade, reclassify it, and
publish the data. The object lesson thus presented will
cause to be taken the necessary further steps to remedy
the present system of handling the trades. The workers will
each be able to earn higher wages when the unions see that
they are benefited, and the labor interests will cooperate.
The cost of living will be reduced as by no other means,
and all this by scientifically reclassifying the trades!


In most cases, the direction of a motion that is most
economical is the one that utilizes gravitation the most.
Oftentimes delivering material to a high-priced work-



man by leaving the material in a high position also makes
easy unloading for the low-priced workman.

Example. Stacking up packs 2 feet high saves motions,
and saves stooping when the laborer unloads his trucket.
(See Fig. 21.)

" Direction" admirably serves as an illustration of the

Fig. 21. Trucket for storing reserve packs stacked up 2 ft. high,
to save stooping when it is being unloaded.

close interrelation of the variables. It is closely con-
nscted with "path." It involves discussions of anatomy,
acceleration, and speed. It demands consideration of all
variables of surroundings, equipment, and tools.

The best ''direction of motion" is not only important
in itself for increase of output; it must also be kept con-
stantly in mind in standardizing the placing of both
materials and men.



Effectiveness has been touched upon in discussing
" combination with other motions."

An effective motion is one that produces the desired
result. Oftentimes whole processes, methods, and oper-
ations can be so changed as to make the succeeding
motions much more effective.

Example. The introduction of the fountain trowel,

Fig. 22. The Fountain Trowel.

used in connection with an ordinary trowel, made each
motion in handling mortar much more effective. (See
Figs. 19, 22.)

After all, a human being or a work animal is a power
plant, and is subject to nearly all the laws that govern
and limit the power plant. It is a law of motion study


that, other things being equal, the less number of foot-
pounds of work done by the workman, the smaller percent-
age of working hours he must devote to rest to overcome

It is therefore of great importance in obtaining the
largest possible output that the work shall be so arranged
and the workman so placed that he can do his work with
the least possible amount of foot-pounds of work done per
unit of output accomplished. This is where the philan-
thropic employer has often been rewarded without know-
ing it. In his desire to make conditions such that the
workman was most confortable while working, he re-
duced the number of foot-pounds of work to that which
was absolutely necessary to do the work. He surrounded
the workman with conditions that enabled him to have no
fatigue, except that which was acquired from the motions
of the work itself. He made conditions such that the
workman was enabled to overcome the fatigue from his
motions in the quickest possible time. (See Fig. 23.)


There are two ways by which the amount of inertia
and momentum may be reduced.

i. By standardizing surroundings and equipment so
that the inertia and the momentum are limited to practi-
cally that of the materials, and not the materials plus
arms and body.


Example. Picking up ninety pounds of brick at one

2. By so standardizing motions that as few starts and
stops as possible occur from the time the material leaves
the stock pile till the time it is in its final resting place in
the work.

Example. In laying brick by the " pick-and-dip "
method on face tiers, a brick is lifted in one hand and a
trowel full of mortar in the other. The brick must come
to a full stop in the bricklayer's hand while the mortar is
being laid and the bed prepared, and then move to its
final resting place, unless brick and mortar are dropped in
two different places.

In laying brick by the " stringing-mortar " method, the
mortar is laid and the bed prepared before the bricks are
lifted. The brick are conveyed from the pack to the wall
without interruption or delay.

Standard methods of performing work may enable the
worker to utilize the momentum.

Example. If the bricks are conveyed from the stock
platform or pack to the wall with no stops, the momentum
can be made to do valuable work by assisting to shove
the joints full of mortar. If, instead of being utilized,
the momentum must be overcome by the muscles of the
bricklayer fatigue, not full joints, will result.

The ideal case is to move the brick in a straight
path and make the contact with the wall overcome the



A general rule of motion economy is to make the short-
est motions possible.
Eliminating unnecessary distances that workers' hands

Fig. 23. Common type of Trestle Horse Staging. Bricklayers cannot be
expected to lay as many brick per day when working in this position as
when standing up between a wall and a stock platform, each 2 ft. high.

and arms must travel, will eliminate miles of motions per
man in a working day as compared with usual practice.

Example. Put the wheelbarrow body as close as pos-
sible to the pile that is to be put into it, so that the dis-
tance the packets are carried from the pile to the barrow,


or the sand from the pile to the barrow, will be the shortest
distance possible.

Of the necessary distance to be walked or reached,
have as much of it as possible done by the low-priced
man, and have as little of it as possible done by the high-
priced man.

Example. - With brick, have the tender put the pack
of brick as near the final resting place of the brick as con-
ditions will permit, so that when the high-priced man picks
up a pack of, say, eighteen bricks, he requires a short mo-
tion only.

Have the high-priced worker always use first the stock
that is nearest, this rule requiring the shortest motions
in conveying the stock to its final resting place.

Example. In picking up brick from a packet or a
scaffold the nearest brick should be picked up first. The
brick that are farthest away serve as a reserve stock pile,
to be picked up only in the emergency of not having any
others nearer to pick up. It .may be that the brick farthest
away may not need to be used on that piece of work at
all, or at least their place will not be occupied so many
times by bricks to be transported with longer motions.

Standard tools, equipment, and surroundings are essen-
tial if length of motions is to be made standard.

As already said when discussing clothes, the workman
of the present should have even his overalls, belt, and
clothes so designed that they will hold the different kinds
of tools that are oftenest used, so that they may be picked
i p in the shortest time that is, with pockets for nails,
clips, clamps, etc. The tools should be so placed that
the least and shortest motions can be used after they are
picked up, as cartridges are placed in a cartridge belt.

MOTION STUDY VARIABLES - Frank B. Gilbreth - Part 4


We turn now to the variables of the surroundings.
These differ from the variables of the worker in that we
can influence them more quickly and more directly. In
discussing the variables of the worker, we deal more or
less with the past and the future. The variables of the
surroundings are each and all distinctly of the present.


The " standard conditions" maintained by the employer
are a most important factor for high outputs. It is obvi-
ous that the appliances furnished the workman and the
motions used are interdependent on each other.

Examples. i. The bricklayer could not be expected to
pick up the brick so that he would not have to spin or flop
it in his hand unless it were delivered to him in the right
position on a packet.

2. The bricklayer could not be expected to have so
high an output if he had to stoop over in order to pick
up his stock as he would have to do if the scaffold did not
have a bench that obviated bending.

3. The bricklayer could not be expected to lay brick
without turning around or bending over unless he was
provided with packs of bricks that could be lifted bodily
and placed upon the wall in units as large as could be
economically handled.

4. The bricklayer could not be expected to do away
with those motions that are necessary to remove the lumps
from under a brick if there were holes in the sand screen
and no pug mill to break up the lumps.

It is most important that the workman should be given
"handy conditions" under which to work, that is, the
"most comfortable," or those that require the "least per-
centage of rest" to overcome fatigue.

Examples. i. The bricklayer must obviously have a
scaffold to stand upon that permits adjusting the height
of the platform on which he stands to a standard distance
below the top of the ever-growing wall on which he is lay-
ing the brick. We have found that the best height is
from twenty-four to thirty-two inches below the top of the
wall. If the wall is being laid overhanded, the height
should not be over twenty-four inches, while if the wall
is not being laid overhanded, thirty-two inches is the better

It is obvious that the bench from which the stock is
picked up should be maintained at a standard distance
above the platform on which the man stands. Also the
platform on which the laborer walks should be located at
the standard distance below the stock platform that will
enable him to deposit the brick and mortar in a manner
that will cause the least fatigue. Therefore, the three
platforms for bricklayer, stock, and tender should be
fixed with relation to one another, and movable in relation
to the top of the wall, capable of being hoisted as the wall
grows without stopping or disturbing the men.

2. The elevator for hoisting the brick and mortar should
always be arranged so that it can, when desired, land
above the top of a staged wall, and thus the brick and mor-
tar can be wheeled down to the scaffold on the floor below.
Then the tenders can wheel down with full loads and
wheel the empty barrows up to the floor above.

3. Make a table, barrel, or box to put near the work-
man, no matter what his trade is, so that he will not have
to stoop over and pick up his tools. Provide something to
lean his shovel against or to hang his shovel on when he is
alternately shoveling and wheeling to cut down time and
to reduce the fatigue of stooping over and picking up the

The motions to be used and to be avoided are largely
determined and affected by the appliances used; therefore
for the highest outputs the right appliances must be de-
vised, standardized, used, and maintained, otherwise the
motions cannot be standardized. Furthermore, it is much
easier to standardize motions with standard appliances
than without them.


The clothes that the workman wears may be a hindrance
or a help to him in his work. Tight or ill-fitting clothing
may restrict motions. Fear of ruining clothing may
seriously cut down the speed of the worker.

On the other hand, clothing designed and specially
adapted to the work that the worker has to do may in-
crease output to a surprising extent.

Not till the advantages have been appreciated of having
working clothes made the subject of study from the motion-
economy standpoint will manufacturers provide the gar-
ments needed. But they are only too anxious to meet
every demand as soon as they are conscious of it. Once
let the specialized clothes for the worker be standardized
and they will be placed immediately upon the market in
inexpensive, durable, and attractive shape.

As for their reception by the worker, as soon as he
realizes that they increase his efficiency, and are a badge
of specialization and not of servitude, he will be ready and
glad to welcome them.


The stimulating effect of color upon workers is a subject
to be investigated by psychologists. The results of their
study should be of great benefit, especially to indoor work-
ers. Motions could undoubtedly be made simpler by the
proper selection of the color of painting and lighting in
the workroom.

In our work we have to deal chiefly with color as a
saver of motions. Color can be seen quicker than shape.
Therefore, distinguishing things by their color is quicker
than distinguishing them by the printing on them.

Examples. i. The various pipes in a pipe gallery
can best be nvogniwf by painting them different

2, The right-hand end of the packet is pointed Mack, in
order that when earned in the right hand of the laborer
it can be placed so that the bricklayer can pick op cadi
brick without spinning or flopping the brick in Ms

3, Painting took different colors, and also the place
where they are to be placed in the drawer or the chest
the same color, saves motions and time of motions when
patting them away and finding them next time,

4. When tow-priced men bring packages of any kind to
higher-priced wen to use or handle, the packagrs should
always be painted stenciled, or labeled with a distinguish-
ing color on one end and on top. Tins wifl enable the
low-priced workman to {dace the package in the manner
called for on the instruction card with the least thought,
delay, and motions. It win also enable the Ingb-priced
man to handle the package with no such lost mgffr^Mt as
turning the package around or over.

5. Oftentimes the workmen who are best fitted physically for their work cannot read, or at least cannot read
English. Even if they could it would take some time to
read the stenciled directions on the non-stooping -*dW
to the effect that "this side goes against the brick wall."
It win greatly reduce the number of motions to paint the
side that goes next to the wall a different color from the
side that goes away from the watt.


Music. The inspiring and stimulating effect of music has been recognized from ancient times, as is shown by
the military band, the fife and drum corps, the bagpipe of the Scotchman, down to the band that rushes the
athlete around the track or across the field.

The singing of gangs at certain kinds of work, the rhythmic orders that a leader of a gang shouts to his men, and the grunting in unison of the hand drillers, show the unifying as well as the motion-stimulating effect of music and rhythm.

That some of the trades can have their motions affected
in time and speed by music, to a point that will materially
affect the size of their outputs, is a recognized fact.

Some of the silent trades have used phonography and
musical instruments to entertain the men while they were
working. It was found it paid the employer to furnish
stimulating records at his own expense, so that the work-
men would make more and quicker motions, rather than
to permit the employees to furnish phonographic records at
random at their own expense.

Reading. Reading as a stimulus to output has been
used with excellent results among the cigar makers.

It is also interesting to read in an article on " Three
Months in Peonage" in the March, 1910, issue of the
American Magazine, that story- telling may produce the
same good results.

"The four packers under me," says the writer, a Ger-
man white, who was working with peons at packing tobacco
in Mexico, 'knew no greater joy than to listen to a fairy
tale with the regulation princess and dragon, and if I
could but tell them one, or one of their number did so, the
work went twice as fast, and they were happy."

The excellent and direct effects of entertainment upon
health, fatigue, etc., are subjects for the scientist to study
and the planning department and the welfare worker to
apply. The effects of entertainment upon output should
be studied by the student of motion economy. This
variable alone furnishes a vast field for investigation.


Heating, cooling, ventilating, and humidizing are closely
allied, because all can be done with one and the same
apparatus, and all greatly increase the workman's comfort,
health, and possible number of motions.

Maintaining desired temperature in summer as well as
winter by forcing into workrooms air that has been passed
over heating or refrigerating coils has a great effect on the
workman. Many factories, such as chocolate factories,
have found that cooling the air for better results to the
manufacturing process also enables the workers to pro-
duce more output an output quite out of proportion to
the cost of providing the air.

In many trades requiring great alertness and physical
strength the proper heating and ventilating will allow
the workman to dress in a costume specially adapted to
his work, or to strip almost to the athlete's suit, with a
consequent increased number and effectiveness of motions.

The degree of temperature and the percentage of humid-
ity desired for each day of the year should be determined.
The man in charge of the heating should receive no bonus
for small consumption of fuel unless he also maintained
the temperature and humidity called for on his instruction card.

The subjects of heating, ventilating, etc., are well cov-
ered by Mr. Hugo Diemer in his book on " Factory Organ-
ization and Administration." The proper time to consider
these subjects is when the building is designed, but too
often at that time the all-important question is, How
cheaply can the building be built? Ultimate saving will
justify almost any conceivable first costs.


The subject of lighting has, indirectly as well as directly,
a great influence upon output and motions, as upon the
comfort of the eye depends, to a large extent, the comfort
of the whole body.

The arrangement of lighting in the average office, fac-
tory, or house is generally determined by putting in the
least light necessary in order that the one who deter-
mined the location of the light may be able to see perfectly.
This is wrong. The best light is the cheapest. By that
is not meant that which gives the brightest light. In fact,
the light itself is but a small part of the question. Go
into any factory and examine every light, and you will
notice that as a rule they are obviously wrong. A light
to be right must pass five tests:

a. It must furnish the user sufficient light so that he
can see.

b. It must be so placed that it does not cause the user's
eyes to change the size of the diaphragm when ordinarily
using the light.

c. It must be steady.

d. There sha'l not be any polished surfaces in its vicin-
ity that will reflect an unnecessary bright spot anywhere
that can be seen by the eyes of the worker.

e. It must be protected so that it does not shine in the
eyes of some other worker.

The use of polished brass and nickel should be aban-
doned wherever it will shine in the worker's eye.

For work done on a flat surface, like the work of a book-
keeper or a reader, the light should be placed where the
glare will reflect least in the worker's eyes; where the
work is like the examining of single threads, the relative
color and figured pattern of the background, as well as
good light, is important. This is obvious. So is nearly
everything else in good management. Go into the build-
ings among the workers, the students, and the scientists
and see how rarely it is considered. All of this is not a
question of getting the most out of the light. Light in
a factory is the cheapest thing there is. It is wholly a
question of fatigue of the worker. The best lighting con-
ditions will reduce the percentage of time required for
rest for overcoming fatigue. The difference between the
cost of the best lighting and the poorest is nothing com-
pared with the saving in money due to decreased time for
rest period due to less fatigued eyes.

It is a similar case to the taxicab concerns they
charge their drivers with gasoline and tires and mileage,
accidents, etc., but they furnish the lubricating oil free.
The fallacy of the common practice of putting the lighting
in the hands of the man whose merit is measured inversely
as the coal bill is obvious.

The sub-variables involved make the problem as to
exactly what lighting is most desirable difficult of solution.
The proper solution will have such a beneficial effect, not
only upon the man's work, but also upon his welfare, that
no time or effort expended upon it can be too great.


It is essential to the use of standard motions and the
resulting large output that all material used shall be in
exactly that state in which it can be most easily handled
by the worker.

Examples. i. If there are lumps in the mortar, due to
pieces of brick or shavings or lumps of lime, or cement or
coarse pebbles in the sand, it is impossible for the bricklayer
to do his best work.

2. If the sand is not selected with reference to the thick-
ness of joints, if the sequence of tiers and courses (see
Figs. 15 and 16) and the thickness of joints is determined by
the whim of the bricklayer on the lead, instead of by the
planning department, it is out of the question to expect
high outputs. On the other hand, if the material is of
exactly that consistency with which it can be best handled,
and the other conditions are determined on the instruction
card, much better speed can be obtained.

3. When using cement mortar made of cement and sand
and no lime, the bricklayer will do more and better work
if a tender is kept on the stock platform tempering the
mortar to just the right consistency for the bricklayers.

4. If the brick are all handled in packs on packets from
the time that they arrive upon the job until they reach the
bricklayer's hand, they will each be of better quality, due
to there being little or no chipping from handling and
throwing about. The bricklayer will then be saved the
useless motions of picking up brick that are chipped and
discarding them again, to be used only when laying in the
filling tiers.


The stimulus that rewards and penalties give motions
is obvious. The discussion of reward and punishment
would come under the head of compensation. It must be
left to the cost reducing system to determine just what
system of compensation will induce the men to do their
swiftest, best work.


The most advantageous size of unit to use is a difficult
problem to solve, and is often controlled by some outside
factor. For example, the most economical size of brick
has been determined by the cost and other conditions
relating to the making and baking, and not by the con-
ditions of handling and laying. When the conditions of
laying are studied scientifically, as they are to-day, one is
forced to the conclusion that, for the greatest economy, the
size of common brick should be changed materially from
that of the present practice in America. The usual size of
the brick used in England is much larger than the cus-
tomary size used here.

It is obvious that there is some size of unit that is the
most economical to make the standard package for han-
dling brick in bulk. We have found it to be ninety-two
pounds for a first-class laborer, either for piling or loading
and unloading brick from carts. (See Figs. 17 and 18.)

Careful examination of brickwork with the object in
view of selecting the most profitable motions has entirely
revolutionized the methods of bricklaying. For example,
the size of unit that is picked up when loose brick are
handled must be one brick for each hand. The packet
enables us to pick up about eighteen brick at once.

The fountain trowel permits us to pick up and carry to
the wall and spread mortar for twenty-one brick at one
time without dropping the regular trowel which forms a
temporary handle to it. (See Fig. 19.)

The two-wheeled trucket permits carrying twelve packets,
or 216 brick (see Fig. 20), while the hod carries 18 brick,
and the one-wheeled barrow carries 60 loose brick.


Only the careful student of management realizes how
much the speed of the worker can be increased by providing
him with all possible aids toward doing his work.

Mr. Fred. W. Taylor, in his paper on " Shop Manage-
ment," tells of a study he made of overhauling a set of

"He [the writer] did all of the work of chipping, clean-
ing, and overhauling a set of boilers, and at the same time
made a careful time study of each of the elements of the
work. This time study showed that a great part of the
time was lost owing to the constrained position of the work-
man. Thick pads were made to fasten to the elbows,
knees, and hips; special tools and appliances were made
for the various details of the work. . . . The whole scheme
was much laughed at when it first went into use, but the
trouble taken was fully justified, for the work was better
done than ever before, and it cost only eleven dollars to
completely overhaul a set of 300 horse-power boilers by this
method, while the average cost of doing the same work on
day work without an instruction card was sixty- two dollars."
In reading this, it must be remembered that the fatigue-
eliminating devices were only one element in increasing
speed and reducing costs. But, on the other hand, it
must be remembered also what a large element they were
in adding to the comfort and ultimate well-being of the


"Surroundings" have been previously discussed under
" Fatigue, " . " Appliances," etc. It is only necessary to
say here that the surroundings of the worker should be
standardized, the standard being derived from a study of
all the variables.

It is obvious that the highest possible records of output
cannot be obtained unless the workers are furnished with
a standard instruction card made out by the best man
obtainable, one who knows more about their work than
they do, and who can, and does, provide them with stand-
ard conditions that fulfill the most economical conditions
of motions. Even then daily outputs and unit costs must
be watched, so as to take advantage of the slightest change
of conditions that affect costs. In practice, the unit costs
must always also include the wages of the recorder, other-
wise one cannot tell when the wages of the recorders are
not deceiving as to actual unit costs under this intensive


The influence of the tools used upon the output is large.
No workman can possibly comply with standard motions
unless he has the standard tools. No worker should ever
be obliged to furnish his own tools, if large output is ex-
pected. When workmen are obliged to furnish their own
tools (due to their having too much thrift, lack of money,
or fear of having them stolen), they usually use one size
only of the same kind of tool. On many kinds of work
greater output can be obtained by using two or more
sizes of a tool.

Example. The bricklayer should use a smaller trowel
on pressed brick and a larger trowel on common brick.

Again, where workmen furnish their own tools, they use
them after they are too much worn. A shovel with a
worn blade will require several motions to push it into
the material to fill it. It is cheaper in this case to cut
off the handle of the shovel, so that the men cannot use
it. Where no records are kept of their individual outputs
the men always choose the shovel with the small blade.

It is especially important that apprentices should be
supplied with proper tools. According to the usual prac-
tice the apprentice is taught with any tool procurable.
He becomes adept and skilled, but often becomes so ac-
customed to the poor tool he has used that he finds it
difficult to adapt himself to the use of a better new tool.
This seriously hinders his complying with deir.ands for
standard quantities of output.

Tools should bo of standard size and pattern. Workmen
should invariably be made to use a tool that will enable
them to make standard-sized outputs instead of using
a tool that may seem " handier" to them. You cannot
expect a man to comply with standard motions unless he
has the standard tool for which his standard instruction
card was made out.

The customary method in the past for determining the
best weight of tool to use was to guess at it, and to
use that size of tool which was thought to be the
"handiest," or which it seemed could be used with the
least fatigue.

Makers of hand tools cater to the whims of the local
workmen, and, as a result, hand tools are made of many
different designs in different parts of the country. Makers
spend and waste great sums of money making experi-
ments and conducting selling campaigns of odd or new
designs of tools that have no merit from a motion-economy
standpoint. There should be a bureau of testing, where
the actual value of new shapes, designs, and sizes of tools
could be tested and rated in percentages of efficiency from
the standpoint of motion study.

Critics will say that such a scheme will crowd out new
designs, and the benefit of the individual's inventions will
be lost. But it would not; on the contrary, the testing
would give great stimulus to inventors, designers, and tool
makers, for they could then obtain the immediate atten-
tion of the buyers, because they would have the standard
stamp of merit that comes from the record of a test that
excelled previous standards.

We have testing stations for everything else. Think
what the societies for testing materials have done for the
progress of the world! Their records are usable forever, in
any part of the world, once they are made.

When machines have to be tended, two separate sets of
motions must be provided for:

1. The set that the worker uses when he is tending the

2. The set that the worker uses to prepare tools and
material for the machine while it does not require his

All machines have to be tended more or less. Even
automatic machinery has to have attention, and it is most
important here to have motion study, because of the earn-
ing value of the machine being lost while it is shut down.

One sees occasionally a machine that can have any and
every lever operated without the operator taking a single
step, but comparatively few machines are constructed
with this in mind.

Machines requiring constant starting and stopping and
hand feeding or adjusting should have their various levers
so positioned that the "laws of least effort of simultaneous
motions" are complied with.

These laws will be discussed under " Variables of the
Motion." It is only necessary to say here that motions
should be similar on each side of a fore and aft vertical
plane passing through the body. It is so necessary to
have the motions similar that often counterbalances and
springs can be installed to reverse the motion, thus also
causing the hardest work to be done in the most convenient

Anything that is used very often can be returned to
place better, as well as with less motions, by gravity, or by
the application of the gravity by some such means as a string
and a weight. It requires some skill to use a wrench, but
it requires no skilled motion or thought to return the wrench
to its exact resting place with handle pointing in the most
economical direction for picking up the next time it is used.

The average machine to-day is designed for a short
demonstration of quick output, with less regard for the
least percentage of rest required for overcoming fatigue
due to continuous operation. With demand will come
supply of machines that fulfill all economical motion re-


The local rules of some unions are sometimes a hin-
drance to standardizing motions and thereby increasing
output. The higher wages from higher outputs under
intensive management soon convert the desirable members,

Many unions believe that extremely high outputs per
man are against the interests of the union as a whole, on
the theory that they may "work all of their members out
of a job." Furthermore, they often think that the sacri-
fice that their one union may make in the world's en-
deavor to reduce the cost of living generally, is not properly
offset by having any one trade or any one locality practic-
ing intensive outputs. A few practical object lessons of
the general increase in business resulting from higher
wages and simultaneously created lower-production costs
will, however, always convince the most prejudiced be-
liever in artificially restricted maximum outputs.

The compensat'on of workers will not be discussed here,
although the basis of compensation does affect motions.


Generally speaking, the weight of the unit moved is of
three kinds:

1. The weight of that part of the body that is moved.

2. The weight of a tool used, such as a hammer or
a trowel.

3. The weight of material used, such as a brick, or
the mortar on the trowel.

Other things being equal, the less of the body moved the
less fatigue.

The weight that the tool should be is determined by
the use of the tool. In the case of a sledge hammer, in-
creased weight means increased efficiency. A twenty-five
pound sledge might break a block of granite in halves
in five blows, whUe a ten pound hammer might require
one hundred blows. In the case of a trowel, increased
weight means d: creased efficiency. The heavier the trowel,
the greater the fatigue with no accompanying gain in
output. .

We have determined that a cutting-out hammer for
brickwork should weigh, exclusive of the handle, 3.75
pounds, but that a hammer for drilling plug holes in granite,
for making dog holes in heavy stone blocks, should weigh
4 pounds.

The weight of units moved should be standardized.

Example. There is undoubtedly a certain sized load
in a shovel that will enable a first-class man to accom-
plish the largest output with his maximum effort. Taylor
has found his weight to be 21.5 pounds. The size of
shovels that should be used should therefore be desig-
nated on the instruction card accordingly, and exactly
21.5 pounds should be the standard unit of weight of
material shoveled.


This discussion of the variables of the surroundings,
etc., is not detailed because general discussion is self-
evident, and detailed discussion must be too specialized
to interest the general reader.

It is only necessary to call attention to the general laws,
logical and psychological, which underlie these variables,
and their effect on standardizing motions. Each student
naturally applies these laws to his own field, and sees for
himself the opportunities for further study and application.

MOTION STUDY VARIABLES - Frank B. Gilbreth - Part 3



That previous experience is an element to be considered
is obvious. This fact is so well recognized that the expres-
sion "You can't teach an old dog new tricks" may be
heard around the world. While this may be true with
dogs, it is not true with workmen. On a short job it may
not be advisable to attempt to change radically the life-
time customs of a local workman. But recording the out-
put of each man separately will tell whether or not it is
advisable to make out the instruction card in accordance
with the previous experience of the workman, or in accord-
ance with the way in which actual records have proved to
be productive of the highest outputs. Experience varies
widely, and the habits formed are often difficult to over-

Example. A bricklayer from certain sections of New
England has been accustomed to pick up mortar with a
trowel at the same time that he picks up brick with the
other hand. This is called the " pick-and-dip method."
The size and shape of his mortar receptacle, the arrange-
ment of the brick and mortar on his scaffold, the shape
of the scaffold itself, the sequence in which he builds the
vertical tiers and the horizontal courses, and, finally, the
labor- union rules themselves, are fashioned after the con-
sequences of using a small trowel, just large enough to
pick up sufficient mortar for one brick only.

A bricklayer so trained finds it difficult at first to adapt
himself to the " string mortar" method of the West. The
western-taught bricklayer experiences the same difficulties
in adapting himself to the " pick-and-dip " method with
the speed of the eastern bricklayer. But their difficulties
are nothing compared with those that the employer ex-
periences who puts the good points of both systems on
any one job.

Not only do habitual motions become fixed, but also
the previous experience of the bricklayer is often the
cause of his making too many motions, i.e., unnecessary
motions. He seldom, if ever, has been rigidly trained to
use a certain number of definite motions. It takes time
and patience to induce him to adopt a standard method.

On a small job it is advisable to select those men for the
leads and the trigs who are best fitted to be leaders, that
is, who are best prepared by previous experience to carry
out without delay the requirements of the instruction
cards but give due consideration to the previous ex-
perience and habits of work of the workmen.

On a large job, however, it is most economical to insist
on standard methods and standard motions that will pro-
duce the highest outputs, without regard to the previous
training of the workmen. Attract and retain those work-
men who can follow out their instruction card and as a
result produce the high records of outputs.


Fatigue is an important variable to consider when
selecting those motions that will give the most economy
and that make the " standard motions." It goes without
saying that the motions that cause the least fatigue are
the most desirable, other things being equal.

Fatigue is due to a secretion in the blood.
To quote from an article signed "I. M. T." in the
American Magazine for February, 1910:

"The toxin of fatigue is the phrase the physicians have
given us with which to jar the attention of those who can
only be stirred by harsh words. It has been demon-
strated in the last few years that fatigue is due to an
actual poison not unlike the poison or toxin of diphtheria.
It is generated in the body by labor. But the system
takes care of itself and generates enough anti-toxin to
take care of a normal amount of toxin or poison. If it
continues to be produced in abnormal quantities the sys-
tem cannot grapple with it. There is a steady poisoning
of the body, with all the baneful effects, mental and moral,
as well as physical, that poison produces."

Continuous hard work, however, like proper training, puts
the body into that condition that best overcomes fatigue.
Fatigue is due to three causes:

1. Fatigue due to coming to work improperly rested
(fatigue brought to the job).

2. Unnecessary fatigue, due to unnecessary work, un-
necessary motions, or uncomfortable positions, surround-
ings, and conditions of working.

3. Necessary fatigue, due to output.

Every motion causes fatigue. The same motions in
the same trade cause about the same fatigue for all first-
class men, and they all require about the same amount of
rest to overcome fatigue, provided their habits and mode
of living are the same outside of working hours.

The amount of fatigue caused and the percentage of
rest required in many different kinds of work have been
computed by Frederick W. Taylor with great exactness.
He has assigned the various workers to classes and accu-
rately computed the "task" from his records.

We have no such records as Mr. Taylor has gathered,
but we have numerous records of outputs of different men
on several kinds of work. We know that the amount cf
rest actually required by a workman increases with the
discomfort of the position in which he works. We also
know that the speed, hence the output of the worker, de-
creases rapidly if there is much fatigue to overcome.

Example. A bricklayer can lay brick for a few min-
utes quite as quickly when he picks up the brick from the
level of the platform on which he stands (see Fig. 9), as
he can when he picks up the brick from a bench twenty-
four inches above the level of the platform on which he
stands (ses Figs. 10, n, and 12), but he cannot keep that
speed up, because he requires more rest to overcome the
greater fatigue.

It is not simply for the welfare alone, although that
reason should be sufficient, but for economic reasons as
well, that the men should be so placed and equipped
that their work is done under the most comfortable

Examples. i. It is a recognized fact that a clut-
tered-up floor under a workman's feet will tire him quite
as much as the productive work that he is doing. A
smooth-planked floor will enable a bricklayer to lay many
more brick than will earth that has been leveled off.

2. A bricklayer can stoop over and pick up anything
from the floor with one hand with much less fatigue if he
has a place to rest his other hand while he is stooping,

because he puts his weight on one foot and lifts his other
foot out behind him, which does not tire the muscles of his
back nearly so much.

Slow motions do not necessarily cause less fatigue than
quick motions, and, per unit of work done, may cause
much more fatigue than quick motions.

The amount of work done per motion may not be
fatiguing proportionately to the size of the unit.

Example. - Lifting ninety pounds of brick on a packet
to the wall will fatigue a bricklayer much less than handling
the same number of brick one or two at a time. Conse-
quently with the same amount of fatigue the workman
will handle several times as many brick on packets as he
can handle one or two at a time.

We have, then, under this variable two tasks to perform:

1. To eliminate unnecessary fatigue. This we do by
studying and fixing the variables; that is, by standardiz-
ing the work.

2. To provide for rest from necessary fatigue, and to
utilize rest time.

Under old forms of management workmen " should keep
busy at something," even if prevented from doing their
regular work. An idle workman was considered a disgrace.
The consequence of this was that the workman took his rest
while working, or made believe work while resting. The
old-fashioned kind of rest is called " systematic soldiering."
It is the curse of the military type of management. It is
a form of cheating that has been made respectable by the
conditions forced upon the workers by the employers.

Under scientific management the evils of soldiering are
eliminated, and the correct definite percentage of rest
required is recognized and provided for. When a man is
prevented by causes beyond his control from doing his
regularly assigned work, he is told to use the opportunity
for rest, not to take such rest as can be obtained by
making slow and useless motions, that will give him an
industrious appearance to the casual observer, but to rest,
the ico-per-cent kind of rest.

There are cases where chairs and reading tables have
been provided with beneficial effect for workers to occupy
when delayed for a few minutes. They get the rest, and
their presence at the table acts as a danger signal to the

When a man is fatigued to the point where it is im-
possible for him to do his best work he should be made to
rest. He must not do anything but rest until he is in that
condition that will enable him to fly at his work and per-
form it with the fastest standard motions possible.

Rest does not necessarily mean idleness. The worker
can spend the rest period reading his instruction card, or
filling out his record of output on the card, or in some
other form of restful work. A change of work is often a
rest. By performing the above two tasks well, we secure
the greatest output per day and the fewest hours per day
without injury to the health of the men.


The habits of the workman have much to do with his
success in eliminating unnecessary motions and in adopt-
ing quickly and permanently standard methods. The
term ''habits," as here used, includes not only personal
" habits," so-called, but also habits of thinking, habits of
working, etc.

Habits brought to the work may act as a deterrent or
as an aid to its best performance. They embrace a group
of sub-variables which are difficult to describe and analyze,
and are of immense importance in influencing output.

That acquiring good habits of work makes the worker
more versatile as well as more efficient is forcefully stated
by Mr. Gantt in his book on "Work, Wages, and Profits."
He says:

"The habits that a man has to acquire to become effi-
cient in one class of work stand him in good stead in be-
coming efficient in other work. These habits of work are
vastly more important than the work itself, for it is our
experience that a man who has become efficient in one thing,
readily learns to become efficient at doing other things."

The health of the worker may be affected by:

1 . Other things than his work and the conditions under
which it is done.

2. The work.

Consideration of other things than the work may prop-
erly be left to the welfare department. This department
can most successfully define the scope of its work by
attempting to improve the man himself and his surround-
ings in every way that will make him a better and more
successful worker. This criterion will satisfy both em-
ployer and employee as to the appropriateness, justness,
and utility of the work of the welfare department.

The life of the man when away from work is only in so
far subject to the inspection and jurisdiction of the so-
called "welfare" department as that department can show
itself able to make of the man a more valuable economic
unit to himself and to the community.

If the welfare department makes an efficient workman
the product of its work, the philanthropic by-products
will take care of themselves.

The work itself should be laid out in such a way that its
performance will add to and not subtract from health. A
proper study and determination of the variables that affect
the surroundings and the motion will go far to insure this.
Moreover, standardized work will transform the workman.

Henry L. Gantt, in a most stimulating paper on "Train-
ing the Workmen in Habits of Industry and Cooperation,"
read before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
December, 1908, says of workmen:

"As they become more skilled, they form better habits
of work, lose less time, and become more reliable. Their
health improves, and the improvement in their general ap-
pearance is very marked. This improvement in health
seems to be due to a more regular a-nd active life, com-
bined with a greater interest in their work, for it is a well-
known fact that work in which we are interested and
which holds our attention without any effort on our part,
tires us much less than that we have to force ourselves
to do."

This Mr. Gantt says in speaking of the benefits of the
"task and bonus" system; but the same thing is undoubt-
edly true of men working under standards derived from
motion study.


Mode of living has been more or less touched upon
under " health" and " habits." It is a complex variable,
difficult to analyze and difficult to control. Its effects on
output are for this reason all the more far-reaching and
demand scientific investigation.


This is a subject that has been investigated much more
scientifically with regard to horses and mules than with
regard to workmen, but cases are seen on every hand
where it is more profitable to furnish the most nutritious
food to the men gratis than to permit them to have the
usual poor food of the padrones' storehouse. In the build-
ing of a new town in Maine it was found to be economical
to spend considerable sums of money for supplying food for
the men at less than cost, rather than to have them eat
the food provided by the local boarding houses. The
nutritive value of various foods and the amount of energy
which various diets enable one to put forth have been
made a study in training soldiers. There must be many
data available on the subject, and the government should
collect them and issue a bulletin for the use of the welfare
departments of large employing organizations. The army
might also serve as an example in many other ways to the
student of economics. The " Tactics" are admirable "in-
struction cards," conforming to many of the laws o
motion study. It seems unfortunate that the govern-
ments of the world up to the present time have confined
all of their attempts to standardize motions to the arts
of war, and have done nothing in this line in the arts of


Size of men, with relation to their motions, has much
more influence than is usually realized.

Short men are usually the best shovelers where the
shovelful need not be raised much in doing the work, such
as in mixing mortar and concrete. Few foremen realize
that this is because a short man does fewer foot-pounds of
work in doing the same amount of shoveling. On the
other hand ; when men are shoveling in a trench, the taller
the men, usually, the more the output per man.

Oftentimes a staging is built at a height below a set of
floor beams that enables the men to work to best advan-
tage. On such a staging men should be selected of as
nearly the same height as possible.


The workman with the most skill is usually the one
who can adapt himself quickest to new methods and

Example. A bricklayer who has great skill in his
trade can instantly lay a brick in the same manner that
he is once shown. To get him to do so constantly when
not supervised is difficult, but that can be quickest im-
pressed upon his mind if he is shown the reason for
every change demanded of him.

To make sure that the worker of the future acquires his
skill properly, is the most important task here. This can be
done only by insisting continuously on conformity to scien-
tifically derived standards from the beginning of his training.

Example. The best results from a motion- study stand-
point can be attained only by teaching the apprentice
from his first day to lay the brick with the standard
motions regardless of the looks of the work. If the work
is not good enough to permit the brick to remain on the
wall, a skilled bricklayer should fix it, until the apprentice
can lay the brick with the prescribed standard motions in
a manner good enough to permit the work to remain as a
part of the structure.

The apprentice should not be permitted to depart from
the standard motions in any case until he has first acquired
them as a fixed habit. The most pernicious practice is
the generally accepted one of first having an apprentice
do perfect work and then attempting to make speed later.
The right motions should be taught first, and the work
taken down and rebuilt until it is up to standard quality.
This is the only way to get the full benefits of the economics
of motion study. (See Figs. 13 and 14.)

The workman who will make the highest outputs of the
future will be he who has as a habit those standard motions
that are the most productive when operated under stand-
ard conditions.


The temperament of the man has more to do with the
motion he uses than one usually supposes.

Example. Many expert face bricklayers would quit a
job rather than lay common brick on interior walls, even
though they might earn higher wages on the inside work.
Other bricklayers prefer to lay common brickwork, not
that they doubt their ability to lay the face brick, but
because they like the strenuous athletic contests for high
scores of output and high pay. To them there is no
monotony in laying common brick day after day, for to the
skilled mason brick are not so nearly alike as are human

A bricklayer interested in his work will often remember
the characteristics of one certain brick years after he has
forgotten the wall upon which it was laid.

Therefore the temperament of the man must be taken
into consideration when placing the men. When they are
best placed they follow their instructions on the subject of
motion, and higher scores will be the result.


" Training" is so closely related to "skill" and "ex-
perience" that it is difficult to separate it from them. We
use the word to mean both the worker's theoretical and
practical equipment for his work, his entire preparation.
The problem is to see that the worker has both kinds of
equipment, acquired in the most useful, balanced method

The training of the available worker must always be
considered in estimating the time that it will take him to
acquire standard methods and the output that can be
expected of him. The training of the worker of the future
should be planned to fit him for standard work. The
training of the apprentice on the work to-day is usually
defective because he has little or no training in theory
at the same time that he is getting his practice. Further-
more, the journeyman who is his instructor not only has
had no training in pedagogy, but often lacks the benefits
of the elements of a common-school education. The usual
time of apprenticeship in the building trades in this coun-
try is three years, or until the apprentice is twenty-one
years old.

On the other hand, the boy taught in the trade school
lacks training under actual working conditions. The ques-
tion of dollars and cents to make for the employer, special
fitting for high wages for himself, and the knowledge
of the principles underlying the requirements necessary
in order to obtain specially high outputs from intensive
management, are wholly lacking.

The present apprenticeship system is pitiful and criminal
from the apprentice's standpoint, ridiculous from a modern
system standpoint, and there is no word that describes its
wastefulness from an economic standpoint.


Before turning to the variables of the surroundings, it
may be well to summarize. The variables of the worker
consist of the elements of the equipment that the worker
brings to his work, both those that he was born with and
those that he has acquired. These are mental and physical.

We have concluded:

1. That first-class men should always be secured if that
be possible.

2. That everything possible should be done to preserve
and to add to the natural powers and capacities that the
worker brings to his work.

3. That standard practice derived from motion study
does add to the natural powers of the worker, and both
shortens his hours of work and adds to his output.

4. That training based on the laws underlying standard
practice will enable the worker of the future to attain still
higher efficiency and output.