Saturday, November 30, 2013

Industrial Engineering in Apparel Industry



Industrial Engineering in Garment Manufacturing
100+ posts by Prasanta Sarkar
http://www.onlineclothingstudy.com/2011/03/industrial-engineering.html
You can download all the articles as E-book also.

Cambodia Garment Industry Workforce assessment 2006 report
http://www.betterfactories.org/content/documents/Cambodian%20Garment%20Industry%20Workforce%20Assessment%20June06%20%28en%29.pdf


IMPLEMENTATION OF MODULAR MANUFACTURING IN THE CLOTHING INDUSTRY IN
KWAZULU-NATAL: A CASE STUDY
2011 paper, South African Journal of IE.
http://www.up.ac.za/dspace/bitstream/2263/16580/1/Ramdass_Implementation%282011%29.pdf

Application of Work Study in Apparel Industry
http://www.slideshare.net/bejayrocks/application-of-workstudy
Good project presentation

Supply Chain of an Apparel Retailer
http://industrialeducation.blogspot.com/2009/08/study-of-supply-chain-zara-fast-fashion.html

IE in Apparel Industry - An Explanation of IE
http://www.icmim.ir/Files/Article/2009-02-25_11.45.24_Apparel%20engineering.pdf


The U.S. Apparel Industry - Supply Chain Review
http://www.bilkent.edu.tr/~alpersen/Papers/ApparelReview_Sen_November_2003.pdf

Report on use of IE in Apparel Companies by KSA Technopak - Good Report
http://www.genprom.org.pk/pdf/58624.pdf


Learning Curve Effect in Various Industries and Products




Ford Model T        1909 -23      0.29        87%
Integrated Circuits  1962-68       0.047      67%
Photovoltaic Cells   1971-2000  0.042      72%




Lean Manufacturing
By Wikipedians
PediaPress
page 144
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=n0qKUzfYbyUC


Kaizen Assembly: Designing, Constructing, and Managing a Lean Assembly Line - Book Information

Chris A. Ortiz
CRC Press, 26-Jun-2006 -  264 pages


Kaizen Assembly: Designing, Constructing, and Managing a Lean Assembly Line takes you step-by-step through an actual kaizen event. This approach demonstrates in detail the mindset, the processes, and the practical insight needed to transform your current assembly line into a world-class lean operation.

Chris Ortiz brings the experience of over 150 successful kaizen events to the pages of this unique guide. Using clear, succinct, and unambiguous language rather than more general and esoteric terms found in other books, he explains how to implement waste reduction, 5S, time and motion studies, line balancing, quality-at-the-source, visual management, and workstation and assembly line design. Taking a unique approach, the book follows an example of the assembly process for an electric bike including illustrations of nearly every step along the way. Ortiz even includes the most valuable teaching tool of all: past mistakes, how they were overcome, and how to identify and avoid them.

Providing expert guidance that will last long after the consultants have left, Kaizen Assembly supplies the tools you need to make kaizen and lean assembly a permanent fixture at the heart of the shop floor.


http://books.google.co.in/books?id=61Wr87UGAFAC

Friday, November 29, 2013

Capability Maturity Model for Industrial Engineering - Industrial Engineering Capability Maturity Model (IECMM)



Proposed by Narayana Rao K.V.S.S. (29 November 2013)

7. Taking responsibility for total costs of the company - Total Cost Industrial Engineering
6. Taking Responsibility for complete technology efficiency engineering
5. Doing Operation Research Studies and Statistical Studies to reduce variation and optimize system/process  variables
4. Study of complete method/process and improving the method/process (Methods Efficiency Engineering)
3. Motion Study and improving the motion pattern of the operator and training him
2. Training Operators to do the activity in standard time
1. Time Study for a specified process and Standard Time Setting.




Industrial Engineering Capability Maturity Model (IECMM)
Posted in http://www.xzbu.com/3/view-3385415.htm (22.8.2012)

L1 (Initial stage): Some individuals in the company are implementing IE projects. The results depend on the individual's ability to implement in. In the initial stage, IE process  is unpredictable.   

L2 (Repeatable): IE awareness has increased. There is a procedure to implement IE. The new IE project can refer to past experience in similar projects which are planned and managed. Because IE project planning and tracking is stable and is able to repeat the success of previous experience.

L3 (Defined Level): IE  management has been standardized.  Establishment of clear responsibilities for the  IE management is made. The whole enterprise activities undertaken by IE Standard procedure has been documented. In a defined level of enterprise,  IE process and quality can be summarized as "standard and consistent." The process of project activities of either IE or IE management activities are stable and repeatable.   

L4 (Managed level): For IE process results and activities, quantitative targets are set. All IE activities and  projects are measured and analyzed and appropriate precautions are taken to maximize benefits. In the management-level,  enterprise IE process and quality can be summarized as "predictable", the process can be measured and controlled within an acceptable range of variation.   


L5 (Optimization level): Enterprise is a now in  dynamic self-improvement stage. The entire company is committed to continuous process improvement. At optimization level of the enterprise, the basic characteristics of IE process and quality can be summarized as "continuous improvement."


The model in Chinese Language


工业工程能力成熟度模型(IECMM)
(pronunciation - Gōngyè gōngchéng nénglì chéngshú dù móxíng)

L1(初始级):企业一般不能提供开展和维持IE活动的稳定的环境,IE项目的实施是临时的,实施的结果依赖于个人的能力。处于初始级,IE过程和产品质量是不可预测的。

Qǐyè yībān bùnéng tígōng kāizhǎn hé wéichí IE huódòng de wěndìng de huánjìng,IE xiàngmù dì shíshī shì línshí de, shíshī de jiéguǒ yīlài yú gèrén de nénglì. Chǔyú chūshǐ jí,IE guòchéng hé chǎnpǐn zhí liàng shì bùkě yùcè de.

  L2(可重复级):企业IE意识有了提高,在局部范围内建立了实施IE的规程,新的IE项目可以参考以往类似项目的经验进行策划和管理。因为IE项目的策划和跟踪是稳定的,能重复以前的成功经验,因此处于该级别的企业的IE过程可概况为“有纪律的”。

Qǐyè IE yìshí yǒule tígāo, zài júbù fànwéi nèi jiànlìle shíshī IE de guīchéng, xīn de IE xiàngmù kěyǐ cānkǎo yǐwǎng lèisì xiàngmù dì jīngyàn jìnxíng cèhuà hé guǎnlǐ. Yīnwèi IE xiàngmù dì cèhuà hé gēnzōng shì wěndìng de, néng chóngfù yǐqián de chénggōng jīngyàn, yīncǐ chǔyú gāi jíbié de qǐyè de IE guòchéng kě gàikuàng wèi “yǒu jìlǜ de”.




  L3(已定义级):企业IE管理已规范化,有完善的IE管理制度,设立了IE管理机构并明确职责,对IE管理及如何实施IE进行了系统的阐述,整个企业的IE活动的开展的标准过程已文档化。处于已定义级的企业的IE过程和产品质量可概括为“标准的和一致的”,无论是IE项目活动过程还是IE管理活动,都是稳定且可重复的。


Qǐyè IE guǎnlǐ yǐ guīfànhuà, yǒu wánshàn de IE guǎnlǐ zhìdù, shèlìle IE guǎnlǐ jīgòu bìng míngquè zhízé, duì IE guǎnlǐ jí rúhé shíshī IE jìnxíngle xìtǒng de chǎnshù, zhěnggè qǐyè de IE huódòng de kāizhǎn de biāozhǔn guòchéng yǐ wéndàng huà. Chǔyú yǐ dìngyì jí de qǐyè de IE guòchéng hé chǎnpǐn zhí liàng kě gàikuò wèi “biāozhǔn dì hé yīzhì de”, wúlùn shì IE xiàngmù huódòng guòchéng háishì IE guǎnlǐ huódòng, dōu shì wěndìng qiě kě chóngfù de.

  L4(已管理级):企业对IE活动的成果以及活动过程,都设置了定量的目标,对IE所有项目的重要活动进行度量,并进行分析及采取相应的预防措施。处于已管理级的企业IE过程和产品质量可概括为“可预测的”,过程是已测量的并能控制在可接受的变化范围内。


Qǐyè duì IE huódòng de chéngguǒ yǐjí huódòng guòchéng, dōu shèzhìle dìngliàng de mùbiāo, duì IE suǒyǒu qǐng mù dì zhòngyào huódòng jìnxíng dùliàng, bìng jìn háng fēnxī jí cǎiqǔ xiāngyìng de yùfáng cuòshī. Chǔyú yǐ guǎnlǐ jí de qǐyè IE guòchéng hé chǎnpǐn zhí liàng kě gàikuò wèi “kě yùcè de”, guòchéng shì yǐ cèliáng de bìng néng kòngzhì zài kě jiēshòu de biànhuà fànwéi nèi.

  L5(优化级):企业是一种动态的自我完善的管理,整个企业致力于持续的过程改进。处于优化级的企业,IE过程和产品质量的基本特征可概括为“持续改进”。

Qǐyè shì yī zhǒng dòngtài de zìwǒ wánshàn de guǎnlǐ, zhěnggè qǐyè zhìlì yú chíxù de guòchéng gǎijìn. Chǔyú yōuhuà jí de qǐyè,IE guòchéng hé chǎnpǐn zhí liàng de jīběn tèzhēng kě gàikuò wèi “chíxù gǎijìn”.


References given in the paper

[1]James R.Persse(王世锦,蔡愉祖 译).CMM实施指南[M].北京:机械工业出版社,2003。
  [2]邓世专.持续改进——CMM的精髓[EB/OL].北京:计世网(http://www2.ccw.com.cn/01/0119/b/0119b04_1.asp)。
  [3]韦海英.制造业企业工业工程能力成熟度模型(IE-CMM)研究[D].武汉:华中科技大学,2009。
  [4] Kim Caputo(于宏光,王家锋 等 译).CMM实施与软件过程改进[M].北京:机械工业出版社,2003。
  [5] 蔺宇,齐二石,史英杰.中国工业工程发展及其在制造业的应用研究[J].天津:科学学与科学技术管理, 2007(4)。
  [6]李欣.项目管理成熟度模型及其评估方法研究[D].西安:西北工业大学,2004。

Thursday, November 28, 2013

Industrial Efficiency Engineering - Japanese - 産業効率エンジニアリング



Engineering an efficient environment that employs or SIMATIC existing controller, the TIA Portal framework for the new controller - SIMATIC STEP 7 version 12

http://www.automation.siemens.com/automation/jp/ja/automation_systems/automation-software/tiaportal/controller-sw-tia-portal/pages/default.aspx



Sangyō kōritsu enjiniaringu  - 産業効率エンジニアリング  - Industrial efficiency engineering






http://www.kpit.com/japan/product-engineering/solutions/engineering-design

http://www.engineer.jp/

Cost Management Accounting

Robin Cooper wrote that Japanese companies maintained cost management accounting system to help them in managing and reducing costs. This is in addition to the traditional cost accounting system whose function was to provide inventory valuation information for financial accounting.

Kaizen costing is one such accounting activity.

Wednesday, November 27, 2013

Industrial Efficiency Engineering - A more descriptive title for Industrial Engineering

Toyota Production System is Just in Time Quality Production System

Toyota Production System can be described as Just in Time Quality Production System

TPS is JITQPS

Quality denotes customer acceptance and zero defects.
A defect in JIT system is very costly. Hence, good amount of effort goes into defect prevention activity in Toyota system.

What is the communication system used for ensuring just in time production. Customer has to inform the supplier what he wants and when he wants.

Shiego Shingo Described the basic principles behind TPS as

TPS – the principle behind the tool: 

“Provide the customer’s (internal and external customer) exact requirement immediately with perfect quality.”
(http://oldleandude.com/2011/01/25/shigeo-shingo%E2%80%99s-revolution/  )






________________________________________________

Came across the interesting blog 27.11.2013

Bruce Hamilton's Blog
http://oldleandude.com/

Blogs recommened by Bruce

_____________

http://www.aleanjourney.com/

http://blog.maskell.com/

http://leanthinkingnetwork.org/2011/11/02/hello-welcome/

http://gotboondoggle.blogspot.in/

http://michelbaudin.com/

http://thinkingpeoplesystem.wordpress.com/

http://www.leanblog.org/

http://jefffuchs.wordpress.com/

http://etmmfg.com/blog
_____________
_____________

Tuesday, November 26, 2013

combined waterjet and plasma on the same CNC machine



One of the things you might notice after looking at the above list is that waterjet and plasma fit together very nicely, each processes advantages nicely cancelling the other’s disadvantage. So these two cutting processes fit nicely together, giving a machine a very wide range of capabilities for processing almost any material.

But the biggest reason for the waterjet-plasma combination is the cost to produce parts. Many parts produced from steel plate require high precision in some areas, but not on the entire part. If you purchase a waterjet cutting machine, you have to cut the entire part using waterjet. If your competitor down the street buys a waterjet-plasma combo, he could produce the same part for less than half the cost! By combining the speed of plasma with the accuracy of waterjet, you can dramatically reduce the time and cost to cut most typical parts for metal fabrication.

http://www.esab-cutting.com/the-cnc-cutting-blog/waterjet-cutting/why-combine-waterjet-and-plasma-on-the-same-cnc-machine.html

Application of motion economy Principles to Jig and Fixture Design

 Application of motion economy Principles to Jig and Fixture Desigm

"A Jig holds parts in an exact position and guides the tool that works on them.""A Fixture is a less accurate device for holding parts which would otherwise have to be held in one hand while the other worked on them."

The designer's object in providing jigs and fixtures is primarily accuracy in machining or assembly.  Principles of motion economy are not made use of . Often, opening and closing them or positioning the workplace calls for more movements on the part of the operative than are strictly necessary. For example, a spanner may have to be used to tighten a nut when a wing nut would be more suitable. Some points worth noting are:

1.Clamps should be as simple to operate as possible and should not have to be screwed unless thisis essential-for accuracy of positioning. If two clamps are required they should be designed for use by the right and left hand sat the same time.

2. The design of the jig should be such that both hands can load parts into it with a minimum of obstruction. There should be no obstruction between the point of entry and the point from whichthe material is obtained.

3. The action of unclamping a jig should at the same time eject the part, so that the additionalmovements are not required to take part out of the jig.

4. Where possible on small assembly work‟ fixtures for a part which does not allow of two
-bandedworking should be made to take two parts, with sufficient space between them to allow both bands towork easily.

5. In some cases jigs are made to take several small parts. This may save loading time if several partscan be clamped in position as quickly as one.

6. The work-study man should not ignore machine jigs and fixtures such as milling jigs. A great deal of time and power is often wasted on milling machines owing to the fact that parts are milled one at a time when it may be quite feasible to mill two -or more at once.

7. If spring-loaded disappearing pins are used to position components, attention should be given totheir strength of construction. Unless the design is robust such devices tend to function well for awhile but then have to be repaired or redesigned.

8. In introducing a component into a jig it is important to ensure that the operator should be able to see what he is doing at all stages; this should be checked before any design is accepted. The recording techniques of two-handed process chart and multiple activity charts proves very useful in improvement studies of work place layout. In certain type of operations and particularly those with very short cycles which are repeated thousands of times (such as sweet packing or electronic assembly). It may be required to go into greater details of study to save on movement of hands and efforts and to develop best possible pattern of movement, thus enabling the operator to perform the operation repeatedly with a minimum of effort and fatigue.

The techniques used for this purpose frequently make use of filming and are known as 'Micro motion Study'

Source:
http://www.academia.edu/4932719/APPLICATI_ONS_OF_PRINCIPLES_OF_MOTION_ECONOMY_Y_2013_Wubshet_Abide_BAHIR_DAR_UNIVERSIT_Y_INSTITUTE

Jig and Fixture Design Manual - Erik Karl Henriksen - 1973 - Book Information



Written for the experienced engineer as well as the student, this comprehensive reference presents the fundamental aspects of jig and fixture design in a readable manner.

http://books.google.co.in/books?id=OX9hspFzRAsC

Chapter 22 Economics of Jigs and Fixtures

Foot Operated Machines - Jigs - Fixtures



FOOT PEDAL OPERATED SHEARING MACHINES
http://www.jawfeng.com.tw/foot-pedal-operated-shearing-machines.html



Foot Operated Sealing Machines
http://www.sevanapackagingsystems.com/foot-operated-sealing-machines-1454558.html


DONA PAPER PLATE MAKING MACHINE: FOOT OPERATED
http://www.indiatoolsonline.com/machines/dona-plate-making-machine/foot-operated-dona-plate-making-machine-detail

A very user friendly foot operated machine, low priced and dedicated to fix hangers as well as hinges for strut backs!
http://www.cassese.com/eng/multifix/cassese_mf10.html

Foot Operated Machine

We offer Foot Operated Machines, which are manufactured for optimum utility. Ideally designed for convenient functioning, these machines are operated by foot-paddles. These machines are generally used for leak proof sealing of aluminum foil bag and paper metalized polyester, multi-laired bag and namkeen pouches.
http://www.inkjetprinter.co.in/foot-operated-machine-690694.html

Pedal Foot Operated Pepsi Machine
http://www.pouchpackingmachines.net/pedal-foot-operated-pepsi-machine--265842.html

Safety foot operated switch Fox
http://www.jokabsafety.com/products/control-devices/safety-foot-operated-switch/

Foot Operated Soap Stamping Machine
http://www.sakunengineers.in/foot-operated-soap-stamping-machine.html

Foot Operated Core Cutting Machine.
http://www.slittcoatengineers.com/foot-operated-core-cutting-machine.htm

Foot Operated Capper
http://www.fillingmachinesindia.com/foot-operated-capper.html
Interesting demonstration video in it. It can be made two handed operation by having two bottles capped in each cycle.


Cross-Functional Productivity Improvement - Ronald Blank - 2012 - Book Information




Cross-Functional Productivity Improvement - Ronald Blank - 2012

CRC Press, 06-Sep-2012 -  174 pages

The book starts with an overview of traditional productivity improvement methods. Subsequent chapters explain how different departments can affect productivity and describe what must be done to improve productivity. Supplies time-tested procedures for implementing cross-functional productivity actions that are applicable across a wide range of industries.

Includes many figures, illustrations, and tables that provide the technical information needed to implement sustainable productivity improvements

Readers will gain a clear understanding of exactly what to do and what not to do in all aspects of company operations to maximize productivity through a cross-functional approach. Furthermore, the book will enable companies to take better advantage of all that the ISO 9001 and similar systems have to offer by making best use of the interactions between the various elements of company operations.


Table of Contents

Basic Concepts

The Traditional Approach to Productivity Improvement
Efficiency and Lean Manufacturing
Material Flow
Ergonomics
Quality
Malpractice
Automation

Additional Considerations for the Cross-Functional Approach

Trainers and Training Methods
Effects of Purchasing Activities
Contract Review Technique
Internal Audits
Measuring Systems
Design Verification and Validation Activities
Effects of the Facility
Effects of Preventive Maintenance
Productivity and Human Resources
Employee Orientation
Policies and Procedures
Training
Compensation and Literacy Levels Workload
Employee Evaluation
Productivity and Your Quality Management System
PDCA Cycle
Quality Management System Issues
Calibration Issues
Sampling
Lack of Follow-Up on Corrective and Preventive
Actions
Productive Manufacturing
Work in Process
Effective versus Ineffective Statistical Process Control
Determining When and Where to Do SPC
Control Plans and PFMEAs
Starting SPC
Selecting SPC Personnel
When SPC Calls for Action
Handling, Storage, Packaging, and Preservation
Tooling and Equipment
Waste Prevention
Production Wastes
Support Activities Wastes
Productivity and Motivation
Employee Motivation
Goal Setting

Reliability of the Process and Manufacturing Equipment
Implementing Cross-Functional Productivity Improvement

Overcoming Resistance to Change
Glossary
Recommended Readings
Index

Monday, November 25, 2013

Lean Manufacturing Implementation at Dupont - YouTube Videos by Invistics




“Lean Pull Design for High-Mix Manufacturing - Kanban Cards Are Not Your Only Option”

Presented by
Tom Knight
Founder & CEO, Invistics

Come hear how three major companies, DuPont, Bristol-Myers Squibb and CP Kelco, slashed their working capital 35% to 80% by implementing pull methods better suited than Kanban for their high-mix, high-variability businesses. In addition to discussing traditional Kanban, our presentation addresses several of the most common Kanban alternatives: generic Kanban, Drum Buffer Rope (DBR) and Constant Work in Progress (CONWIP). The presentation will discuss how these different pull methods were implemented with real-world examples, and help attendees understand which of these alternatives are best for their companies.


_____________

_____________


6 Videos playlist



In the twelve months following the launch of the company-wide Six Sigma effort, DuPont documented more than $1 billion in savings.  In the next five years, savings would rise to exceed $2.3 billion.  At the beginning of 2004, DuPont had completed 6,147 Black Belt projects and had 9,406 in the pipeline.

Reducing Manufacturing Waste, the Dupont Way
http://news.thomasnet.com/IMT/2001/12/17/reducing_manufa/

Sangyo Noritsu - Industrial Efficiency in Japan



Nihon Noritsu Kyokai  - Japanese Efficiency Association - Known as Japanese Management Association

Sangyo noritsu kenkyujo - Industrial Efficiency Institute

Sangyo noritsu kenkyujo - Industrial Efficiency Research Institute

noritsu zoshin,  -  “efficiency  increase”

Scientific Management - kagakuteki kanriho

industrial rationalization - sangyo gorika

productivity - seisansei

Human relations - ningen kankei

quality control - hinshitsu tosei

Total quality control - zenshateki hinshitsu kanri

拡がるIE視点  -
http://monoist.atmarkit.co.jp/mn/articles/1104/05/news001.html


Japan IE review magazine
http://www.j-ie.com/ie-review/backnumber/

Lean System Consultancy by H.B.Maynard - Accenture



http://www.hbmaynard.com/ClientArticles/CSUpdate4.asp


Early in 1999, Matthews Bronze and Maynard entered into a partnership. Matthews Bronze had a desire to improve manufacturing productivity and begin a Lean journey through the use of Pull-Through (Lean) Manufacturing techniques.

Matthews has realized the following improvements in the photopolymer operation:

61% increase in throughput
69% reduction in production response time
300% increase in value-added ratio
75% reduction in defective pieces


http://www.hbmaynard.com/CaseStudies/2004/YorkCasket03-31-04.asp

York Caskets to remain competitive  needed to reduce unit costs by 20 to 40 percent. To reach this goal, York partnered with H.B. Maynard and Company, Inc. for assistance in converting the wood casket plant to a Lean Continuous Flow operation.

The strategy recommended by Maynard was to first design a Lean Manufacturing system using sound industrial engineering tools, including value-stream analysis, work method design and work balancing using engineered time standards, and kanban-controlled work flow.

This initiative provided an immediate impact on York’s productivity. Shortly after implementing the changes, York saw a 20 percent reduction in labor hours per casket in the post-finish area. Defects were reduced by 48%. Production response time in the post-finish area was reduced dramatically, from three hours to one hour. In turn, the value added ratio increased from 19 percent to 50 percent.


Sunday, November 24, 2013

Lean Production - Toyota System - Womack, Jones, and Roos



Content in Chapter 3

Chapter 3. The Rise of Lean Production


Example of Lean Production


In American Companies, die changes required a full day. The American companies dedicated die presses to each part. To Ohno of Toyota, that was not the solution. He has to stamp all the parts he needed from only few press lines. Hence he decided to decrease the die change time and he went on decreasing the die change time to 3 minutes and he also eliminated the need for die change specialists. The operators only will change the die. In the process he made the unexpected discovery - it actually cost less per part to make small batches of stampings than to run off enormous lots (due to  small setup costs).

Making only a few parts before assembling them into a car cause stamping mistakes to show up instantly. It made the production people more concerned about quality and that eliminated defectives significantly. But to make the system a success, Ohno needed both an extremely skilled and a highly motivated work force. Workers have take the initiative to maintain quality production. Otherwise, the whole factory will come to a halt.

Ohno organized his assembly workers into teams. The teams were given a set of assembly steps, their piece of line and told to work together on how best to perform the necessary operations. They work under a team leader, who would do assembly tasks, as well as coordinate the team and would  fill in for any absent worker. In mass production plans there were foremen and utility workers used to take the place of absentees. Ohno next gave the teams the job of housekeeping, minor tool repair, and quality checking. Finally, he gave them responsibility for process improvement also. This continuous, incremental improvement process, kaizen in Japanese, took place in collaboration with the industrial engineers, who still existed in much small number.

Ohno reasoned that rework at the end of assembly due to finding errors in final inspection is a waste. He wanted even assembly workers to pass on the work only if it is defect free and in case there is a defect which they could not rectify, they can stop the line and take the time to rectify the defect even with the help of other workers. Also, problem solving through 5 Whys methods is also used to avoid recurrence of the problem. In the initial days of this practice, the line was stopped  many times and workers got frustrated, with practice, the stoppages decreased significantly. Today, in Toyota plants,  yields approach 100 percent. That is the line practically never stops.  The extra benefit due to this method was that quality of shipped cars steadily improved. You cannot build quality by inspection, you have to build quality at the production centers only.  Today, Toyota assembly plant have practically no rework areas and perform almost no rework on assembled cars. In contrast, mass-production plants devote 20 percent of plant area and 25 percent of their total hours of final-assembly effort to fixing mistakes. American buyers report that Toyota's vehicles have among the lowest number of defects of any in the world, comparable to the very best of the German luxury car producers, who devote  many hours of assembly effort to rectification.


Chapter 4. Running the Factory

Classic Lean Production - Description of  Toyota Takaoka Plant

Toyota Takaoka plant was started in 1966.

The army of indirect workers so visible in General Motors plant are not there. Practically every workers in the plant is adding value. Toyota believes in face-to-face communication and hence facilities are located close together.  Less than an hour's worth of inventory was next to each worker. The line is well balanced and every worker worked at the same pace. If a defective part was found, worker carefully tagged it and send to quality control area of replacement.  Five why method is followed for every defective piece found.  Every worker has facility to stop the line. But the line is rarely stopped. There is no rework area for the assembled cars. Almost every car was driven direct from the line to the boat or truck.

There were practically no buffer between paint and final assembly. There were no parts warehouses. The work place was harder but there was a sense of purposefulness.

Mass Production versus Lean Comparision

Gross assembly hour per car was only 18 hours in comparison to 40.7 in GM Famingham plant.

Takaoka was almost twice as productive, three times as accurate as Framingham, but uses only 60% space. Its parts inventory was only 2 hours in comparison to 2 days of GM plant. It is a revolution because the change/improvement was in many dimensions. Also, the line can be changed to a new model a few days only.

Getting to Lean

Important organizational features of lean plants are responsible for half of the overall performance difference among plants of the world. The other two are automation and manufacturability.

The truly lean plant has two key organizational features.

It transfers the maxium number of tasks and responsibilities to those workers actually adding value to the car on the line.

It has in place a system for detecting defects that quickly traces  every problem, once discovered, to its ultimate cause.

In a lean plant all information of plant are displayed on andon boards.  Every time something goes wrong in the plant, every employee knows it and any employee who knowns how to help runs to lend a helping hand.

It is the dynamic work team that is at the heart of the lean factory.  To build efficient teams number of steps are necessary.  Firsr workers, who are team members, need to be taught a wide variety of skills. - in fact, alla the jobs in their work group or team so that tasks can be rotated and workers fill in for each other. Apart from production jobs, workers have to acquire many additional skills: simple machine repair, quality checking, housekeeping, and materials-ordering. They need encouragement to think proactively to solve problems before they become serious.

The authors say that workers respond only when they feel management values skilled workers, makes sacrifices to retain them and is willing to delegate responsibility to them.

The tools used in lean production system as covered by various authors on lean system are consolidated in
Lean Production System Tools - Categorization - Industrial Engineering

Taiichi Ohno specially praises and appreciates the role of industrial engineering in making Toyota, a success.
Taiichi Ohno on Industrial Engineering - Toyota Style Industrial Engineering


Explanation of the Toyota Production System by Taiichi Ohno in the book on Toyota Production System - Summary
Toyota Production System - Origin and Development - Taiichi Ohno






Related Reading

http://www.toyotageorgetown.com/gbl.asp

http://www.toyota-global.com/company/history_of_toyota/75years/text/entering_the_automotive_business/chapter1/section4/item2.html

http://www.toyota.de/images/toyota_in_the_world2008_tcm281-893219.pdf

Operation Analysis - Plant Layout Analysis



As the result of detailed methods efficiency analysis, suggestions are likely to be advanced concerning the improvement of plant layout.

The arrangement of machines and other equipment in the best locations for economical manufacturing plays an important part in efficient plant operation.

As the principles of scientific management began to develop,  plant layout also received more
attention. In the course of time, certain principles were developed which were thought to conform with efficient plant operation. The most important of these were briefly as follows:

1. Haw material should come in at one end of the shop, and the finished product should emerge at the other end.

2. Aisles should be provided for transportation purposes and should be kept clear at all times.

3. Like machines should be grouped and arranged in straight lines or orderly rows.

4. Ample space should be provided around each machine for the placement of material.

The general appearance of layouts made in conformance with these principles was pleasing. A sense of orderliness and lack of crowding was attained, and it was felt for some time that work was done efficiently under such conditions.

More detailed studies,  however, have shown that such arrangements are far from satisfactory and that many inefficiencies exist. Material travels farther than necessary; too much valuable floor space is used for storage purposes ; there is a great deal of back travel; military lines cause unnecessary walking and make it impossible to couple machines; finally, too much labor is spent in moving material about. As the result of a
realization of these facts, a new set of principles has been evolved which may be stated as follows:

1. When material is laid aside at the end of one operation, it should be placed in the position at which it may best be picked up for the next operation.

2. The distance that the operator must move to obtain or to lay aside material should be reduced to a minimum.

3. Time spent by a machine making a cut under power feed is idle time as far as the operator is concerned.



These three principles have a profound influence on plant layout. When applied, they usually result in layouts that look as chaotic to the uninformed observer as the original layouts. They are anything but inefficient, however, as can be recognized from the fact that there are no piles of material standing about, that
there is very little material handling as a separate activity, and that one operator is often found to be operating more than one machine.

Types of Plant Layout. 


Process Grouping


Industrial plants are laid out in two different ways. First, all equipment for a given process may be
grouped together; that is, all milling machines may be located in one part of the department, all welding in another, and all assembly work in still another. Process or horizontal grouping has several advantages. Because all operators doing a given class of work are located together, supervision is easier. New workers
can observe experienced operators on similar jobs and can learn by observation. Material for repairs and servicing can be kept accessible in a near-by location. The appearance of a line-up of similar machines is pleasing. These reasons made process grouping popular throughout industry until fairly recent times.

The disadvantages of process grouping, however, became more and more apparent as detailed studies were made. It was seen that material handling would be greatly simplified if the machines and other equipment were placed in the order in which they were to be used in producing a given product. If, for example, a part
was drilled, milled, painted, and assembled, the provision of a drill press, a milling machine, a paint booth, and an assembly bench lined up in order would permit the product to be manufactured with a minimum of handling. Hence, a different type of layout known as " product" or " vertical " grouping was developed.

Product Grouping


Product grouping, of course, was always practiced in plants manufacturing a single standard product. The advantages were so obvious that equipment was arranged in the order in which it was used. In plants manufacturing a variety of products, however, the full possibilities of product grouping developed much
later. Some of these plants had individual products which were manufactured in large quantities. In order to reduce costs, these products were separated from miscellaneous work, usually primarily to set up a separate costing center which might be assigned a lower overhead or burden rate. When a single product was
segregated and the equipment for producing it was set up in a special space, the equipment was arranged in conformance with the flow of material throughout the process or, in other words, product grouping was practiced.

The advantages gained were so striking that the possibilities of segregating other products were quickly sought. Product grouping replaced process grouping wherever possible.

On miscellaneous work, product grouping is impractical, and therefore process grouping must be used. Even in such cases, however, it is possible to make layouts that conform to the three -principles mentioned above to a large extent.


It will be seen, therefore, that although there are two different types of plant layout, the principles of effective layout practice may be achieved with either type.

Collecting Layout Information. 


It is a relatively simple matter to make an efficient layout if the principles to which it should conform are clearly understood and if complete information is available regarding the product and the processes which it must undergo. If information is collected in the proper form, the layout may be said almost to make itself in a number of cases.

For layout purposes, the operation process chart is one of the most valuable tools available.

In approaching a layout study, an operation process chart should first be constructed. If the layout is for a miscellaneous line of work, operation process charts should be constructed for representative jobs. In addition, information should be collected regarding the floor space available, expected yearly and monthly
activity, and possibilities of greater production in the future. Samples of the product in various stages of completion will also be of assistance in visualizing the processes and the material-handling problem involved.

The time required to perform each operation should be care-fully determined. If no time study data are available, time studies should be taken if the operations are being performed, or careful estimates should be prepared. This information is of primary importance, for the allowed time multiplied by the pro-duction desired per day will determine the number of work stations that must be provided for each operation.

When all information has been collected, it should be arranged for convenient use. A floor plan of the available manufacturing space is first laid out to scale on a table, drawing board, or sheet of stiff cardboard. The operation process chart should be placed where it can be studied easily; that is, it should be tacked to the wall in front of the layout table or placed in some other con-venient position. The samples of the product should be lined up in the order of the process and placed where they may be glanced at from time to time.

Finally, all other data should be put in form for convenient reference.

The manner in which this may be done ;  Present- and expected-activity data are first given. Then each operation is considered in order. The number of work stations required is computed and recorded, and any special information that may have a bearing on the process is noted. The floor space occupied by each work station is ascertained and recorded.

Layout Templates. 


During the course of a layout study, many different arrangements of equipment will be considered. There-fore, it is desirable to prepare templates (representing each work station or piece of equipment) which may be shifted about readily as different arrangements are considered.

Templates are made to the same scale as the floor plan. The scale J4 inch = 1 foot is convenient for most layouts. Templates are commonly made from light cardboard or stiff drawing paper. They should represent the total floor space occupied by the equipment under extreme conditions. A milling machine, for example, should be represented with its table extended the maximum distance in each direction, and a screw machine should be shown with the maximum length of bar stock in place.

Sometimes, it may be desirable to show the space around the work station that is occupied by raw and finished material. If so, the space so occupied should be indicated by sectioning or color on the template. Different methods of handling material may be developed during the course of the layout study, and
therefore a distinction should be made between space occupied by equipment, which Is not subject to change, and space occupied by material.

A layout representation should be as clear as possible, for a number of different Individuals will examine it before it Is finally approved. Small models of the equipment placed on a drawing or other representation of the available floor space as shown by Fig. 94 undoubtedly present the clearest understanding of the
layout, but their preparation often consumes more time than is justified by the clearness gained. Photographs of equipment glued to the templates, as shown by Fig. 95, however, are comparatively easy to prepare and will add to the clearness of the layout. If photographs of a suitable size are not available, templates may be colorejl to distinguish among different types of equipment. If a layout when made has to be presented for
approval to executives who are not particularly familiar with the work, the adoption or rejection of the proposed layout may depend upon the clearness with which it is presented.

Making the Layout. 


The floor plan on which the layout is made may be a blank plan showing only the fixed features of the
floor space, such as columns, elevators, and -washrooms; or if only a minor revision is contemplated, it may show the present location of all equipment. If the latter, the present flow of material can be indicated by lines drawn between machines and equipment to show the path followed by material.

The study of a layout is more than a one-man job. One man can collect information and samples and prepare the floor plan and templates. He can study the problem and make the best initial arrangement that he can conceive. In order to get the benefit of suggestions from every possible source, however, he should then call in others and ask for criticism. The plant superintendent will view the problem from one angle, the foreman
in charge of the work from another, and the operators who do the work from still another. Their comments and suggestions should be encouraged, for the resulting layout will be much improved.

When a number of individuals are commenting on a layout, many revisions will be suggested. Tlie layout representation should be such, therefore, that it can be readily changed. At the outset, it may be inadvisable to fasten the templates in position in any way. If they are merely laid on the floor plan, they can be shifted about until a rough approximation of the desired arrangement is obtained. The templates must then be
located carefully with all aisles, material-storage spaces, conveyers, and so on, represented to scale. At this point, it becomes desirable to fasten the templates down in position so that they will not move. Thumbtacks, map pins, brads, staples, or rubber cement may be used. If desired, tacks or map pins with different colored heads may be used to represent different classes of equipment.

A layout bristling with pins is not an easy object to handle. Therefore, rubber cement may be preferable for securing templates to the layout. A small dab of cement should be put on the back of the template and the template stuck in position. While the cement is wet, the template may be slid about as it is being brought into exact position. The cement hardens quickly and will hold the template securely. If, however, it is desired to
remove the template, a slight pull will unstick it. The dried cement on the floor plan and on the template may be rubbed off with the finger, restoring them both to their original condition. In working with templates, a two-dimensional representation is obtained, and there is a tendency to overlook the fact that the actual manufacturing space is three-dimensional. Hence, everything may be placed on the floor while overhead space is unoccupied. This point should be kept in mind while making layouts, for material storage., conveyers, and so on, may often be placed above the floor level.

There is also a tendency to work with standard pieces of equipment and to try to make the process conform to the equipment rather than the equipment to the process. This is particularly true in connection with benches. Standard benches are used, and work is arranged on them as well as possible. Often, this
involves extra travel of material and extra movement of operators. Special benches are not costly, and they will often pay for themselves many times over. Figure 96 shows a portion of a special bench designed for a clock-motor assembly. The bench solved a difficult handling problem and permitted the work to
flow so that when material is laid aside by one operator it is in convenient position for grasping by the next.

When an arrangement is arrived at that seems satisfactory, the flow of material should be indicated to ascertain if the shortest possible movements are called for. Since the layout is always subject to revision, material flow may best be indicated by threads running from work, station to work station. If tacks or pins are used to hold the templates in position, the thread may be run from tack to tack quite easily. If templates are secured by rubber cement, a dab of cement in the proper places will fasten the thread in position.

Figure 97 shows a typical layout representation at the initial stage of the study. Several different products are manufactured, and, hence, different-colored threads are used to show the flow of different products.


When manufacturing is done on different floors, layouts of each floor may be made separately. They may then be shown in their relation to one another by placing them one above the other in a holding rack, as shown by Fig. 98. A rack of this kind occupies considerable space, however; if this is an important consideration, it may be more desirable to attach the layout representation to a wall with hinges. When the layout is not in use, it hangs on the wall, occupying little space, as shown by Fig. 99. When it is needed, any or all floor representations can be swung up in a position for study, as shown by Fig. 100.

Testing the Layout. When a given layout has been made in accordance with the foregoing methods and when it has been reviewed by all who are In a position to offer constructive comment, the layout at this point represents the best arrangement that those who have worked on it can visualize. If the layout has been made for a single product or for a relatively few products, it is probably safe to proceed with the physical arrangement of the equipment. If, however, the layout is designed for a variety of products, it is usually desirable to subject it to a more thorough test before beginning the physical moves.

The method of testing the flow of material by means of colored threads is useful at the initial stages of the layout, but if many different products are involved, the layout eventually becomes covered with a maze of interweaving threads, and it is difficult to recognize the flow of individual items.

A clearer method of testing the flow of materials is to secure a number of copies of the layout reproduced on a small scale. The original layout may be photographed, and a number of 8)4- by 11-inch prints obtained, or the layout may be redrawn to a smaller scale with a minimum amount of detail shown and a number of
blueprints made. Each small-scale reproduction may then be used to show by means of lines the flow of a single item. Since only one item is shown at a time, any backtracking or excessive travel is clearly revealed.

If the machines used in the production of a given part are marked and the number of pieces per hour obtainable from each machine are shown, a very clear understanding of the way the product will move through the layout will be gained, and possible difficulties can be foreseen. For example, assume that a part is
processed on two machines located side by side. If the production per hour is the same for each machine, the part will flow past this point without difficulty: If, however, the first machine produces at the rate of 600 pieces per hour and the second at the rate of 60 pieces per hour, parts are certain to pile up between
the two machines.

With this fact clearly established, the necessary action can be taken to minimize manufacturing difficulties. The recognition of the bottleneck will suggest its elimination by improving the method for the second operation or by providing additional machines. If it cannot be eliminated, then sufficient floor space
must be provided to hold the maximum amount of material that is likely to pile up ahead of the second machine.

Making the Physical Layout. 


When all parts flowing through the layout have been tested individually and all undesirable conditions have been reduced to a minimum, the physical layout can be started with the certainty that it will function reasonably well. At the same time, no matter how carefully a layout may be made on paper, it is quite likely that it will not be perfect. In working with a small scale, distances that require a step or two to cover
are so small that they may be overlooked. A two-dimensional representation does not portray clearly how the actual layout will look, and templates convey only a partial idea of the real nature





of the equipment. For these reasons, it is well to consider the
paper layout as being only tentative and to check it carefully as
the actual layout is made. At least one plant has established
the rule that when new layouts are made or old layouts revised,
no machine or piece of equipment is to be permanently fastened
in position until a few pieces have been manufactured. Most
equipment will operate for a while" even if it is not firmly anchored,
and by testing the layout in actual operation, opportunities for
minor improvements are frequently discovered.

Preserving Layouts. Changing conditions cause more or less
frequent layout revisions. Therefore, the layout representations
should be preserved for future use. Where changes in product
are frequent, as for example, in the automobile industry, layout
representations may be kept set up permanently so that they are
always available for study. In more static industries, the lay-
outs may be placed hi a dustproof container and stored until
wanted. A really clear layout representation takes some time
to prepare, and it is usually more economical to store it than to
make a new one the next time a revision is contemplated.

Full Knol Book - Method Study: Methods Efficiency Engineering - Knol Book

Methods Efficiency Engineering - Check List




The analysis sheet serves as a guide in  collecting information for analyzing an operation in a  process or method.

The analysis check sheet ensures that every issue connected to efficiency improvement relating to each factor is brought into the analysis.


Before any time is spent on detailed analysis, the activity and the cost of the job are considered. First, the yearly labor cost and machine costs per 0.0001 hour is established. This offers a quick means of testing the practicability of any suggested improvement. If the expected saving in decimal hours multiplied by the yearly labor and machine costs  per 0.0001 hour does not exceed the cost of adopting the suggestion, it usually will not pay to make the improvement.

The expected life of the job is also considered at this point as this is useful in engineering economic analysis.




ANALYSIS CHECK SHEET



Cost and Activity Data

Yearly activity of job
Labor rate per hour
Machine rate per hour .

Labor cost per 0.0001 hour
Expected life of job
Manual-labor content

Sketch or Photograph of Part

Description of Present Method

1. Purpose of Operation

Analysis

Is the result accomplished by the operation necessary?
If so, what makes it necessary?
Was the operation established to correct a difficulty experienced in the final assembly?
If so, did it really correct it?
Is the operation necessary because of the improper performance of a previous operation?
Was the operation established to Correct a condition that has since been corrected otherwise?
If the operation is done to improve appearance, is the added cost justified by added saleability?
Can the purpose of the operation be accomplished better in any other way?
Can the supplier of the material perform the operation more economically?



Remarks and Conclusions







2. Operations Performed on Part
(List or Operation Process Chart)

Can the operation being analyzed be eliminated by changing the procedure or the operations ?
Can it be combined with another operation ?
Can it be subdivided and the various parts added to other operations?
Can part of the operation be performed more effectively as a separate operation?
Can the operation being analyzed be performed during the idle period of another operation?
Is the sequence of operations the best possible?
Would changing the sequence affect this operation in any way?
Should this operation be done in another department to save cost or handling?
If several or all operations including the one being analyzed were performed under the group system of wage payment, would advantages accrue?
Should a more complete study of operations be made by means of an operation process chart?


Remarks and Conclusions

3. Inspection Requirements

By whom were the inspection requirements described above established?
What are the requirements of the ' preceding operation?
What are the requirements of the following operation?
Will changing the requirements of a previous operation make this operation easier to perform?
Will changing the requirements of this operation make a subsequent operation easier to perform?
Are tolerance, allowance, finish, and other requirements necessary?
Are they suitable for the purpose the part has to play in the finished product?
Can the requirements be raised to improve quality without increasing cost?
Will lowering the requirements materially reduce costs?
Can the quality of the finished product be improved in any way even beyond present requirements ?

Remarks and Conclusions


4. Material

Does the material specified appear suitable for the purpose for which it is to be used?
Could a less expensive material be substituted that would function as well?
Could a lighter gage material be used?
Is the material furnished in suitable condition for use?
Could the supplier perform additional work upon the material that would make it better suited for its use?
Is the size of the material the most economical?
If bar stock or tubing, is the material straight?
If a casting or forging, is the excess stock sufficient for machining purposes but not excessive?
Can the machinability of the material be improved by heat-treatment or in other ways?
Do castings have hard spots or burned-in core sand which should be eliminated?
Are castings properly cleaned and have all fins, gate ends, and riser bases been removed?
Is material sufficiently clean and free from rust?
If dies are coated with a preserving compound, how does this compound affect them?
Is material ordered in amounts and sizes that permit its utilization with a minimum amount of waste, scrap, or short ends?
Is material uniform and reasonably free from flaws and defects?
Is material utilized to the best advantage during processing?
Where yield from a given amount of material depends upon ability of the operator, is any record of
yield kept?
Is miscellaneous material used for assembly, such as nails, screws, wire, solder, rivets, paste, and washers, suitable?
Are the indirect or supply materials such as cutting oil, molding sand, or lubricants best suited to the job?
Are materials used in connection with the process, such as gas, fuel, oil, coal, coke, compressed air, water, electricity, acids, and paints, suitable; and is their use controlled and economical?

Remarks and Conclusions

5. Material-handling Methods

Is the time consumed in bringing the material to the work station and in removing it large in proportion to the time required to handle it at the work station?
If not, should material handling be done by operators to provide rest through change of occupation?
Should hand trucks be used?
Should electric trucks be used?
Should special racks or trays be designed to permit handling the material easily and without damage?
Where should incoming and outgoing material be located with respect to the work station?
Is a conveyor justified?
If so, what type would best be suited to the job?
Can the work stations for the successive steps of the process be moved close together and material handling accomplished by means of gravity chutes?
Can the operation be done on the conveyor?
Can a progressive assembly line be set up?
Can material be pushed from operator to operator along the surface of the bench?
Can material be dispatched from a central point by means of a conveyor?
Can material be brought to a central inspection point by conveyor?
Can weighing scales be incorporated to advantage in the conveyor?
Is the size of the material container suitable for the amount of material transported?
Can container be designed to make material more accessible?
Can container be placed at work station without removing material?
Can electric or air hoist or other lifting device be used to advantage at work station?
If overhead traveling crane is used, is service rendered prompt and adequate?
Can a pneumatic tube system be used to convey small parts or orders and paper work?
Will signals such as lights or bells notifying move men that material is ready for transportation improve service?
Can a tractor-trailer train running on a definite schedule be used?
Can an industrial railway running on tracks be used?
Can a tractor-trailer or industrial railway system be replaced by a conveyor?
If helper is needed to handle large parts at work station, can a mechanical handling means be substituted?
Can gravity be utilized by starting first operation of a series at higher than floor level?
Can scrap or waste material be handled more effectively?
Can departmental layout be changed to improve material-handling situation?
Should the material-handling problem in general receive more intensive study in the immediate future?

Remarks and Conclusions

6. Setup, Tools, and Workplace Layout



How is the job assigned to the operator?
Is the procedure such that the operator is ever without a job to do?
How are instructions imparted to the operator?
How is material secured?
How are drawings and tools secured?
How are the times at which the job is started and finished checked?
What possibilities for delays occur at drawing-, tool-, or storeroom or time clerk's office?
If operator makes his own setup, would economies be gained by providing special setup men?
Could a supply boy get tools, drawings, and material?
Is the layout of the operator's locker or tool drawer orderly so that no time is lost searching for tools or equipment?
Are the tools that the operator uses in making his setup adequate?
Is the machine set up properly?
Is the machine adjusted for proper feeds and speeds?
Is machine in repair and are belts tight and not slipping?
If vises, jigs, or fixtures are used, are they securely clamped to the machine?
Is the order in which the elements of the operation are performed correct?
Does the workplace lay out conform to the principles that govern effective work-place layouts?
Is material properly positioned?
Are tools pre-positioned?
Are the first few pieces produced checked for correctness by anyone other than the operator?
What must be done to complete operation and put away all equipment used?
Can trip to return tools to toolroom be combined with trip to get tools for next job?
How thoroughly should workplace be cleaned ?
What disposal is made of scrap, short ends, or defective parts?
If operation is performed continuously, are preliminary operations of a preparatory nature necessary the first thing in the morning?
Are adjustments to equipment on a continuous operation made by the operator?
How is material supply replenished?
If a number of miscellaneous jobs are done, can similar jobs be grouped to eliminate certain setup elements?
How are partial setups handled?
Is the operator responsible for protecting workplace overnight by covering it or locking up valuable materials?
Is the machine tool best suited to the perf ormance of the operation of all that are available?
Would the purchase of a better machine be justified?
Can the work be held in the machine by other means to better advantage?
Should a vise be used?
Should a jig be used?
Should clamps be used?
Is the jig design good from a motion economy standpoint?
Can the part be inserted and removed quickly from the jig?
Would quick-acting cam-actuated tightening mechanisms be desirable on vise, jig, or clamps?
Can ejectors for automatically removing part when vise or jig is opened be installed?
Is chuck of best type for the purpose?
Would special jaws be better?
Should a multiple fixture be provided?
Should duplicate holding means be provided so that one may be loaded while machine is making a cut on a part held in the other?
Are cutters proper?
Should high-speed steel or cemented carbide be used?
Are tools properly ground?
Is the necessary accuracy readily obtainable with tool and fixture equipment available ?
Are hand tools pre-positioned?
Are hand tools best suited to purpose?
Will ratchet, spiral, or power-driven tools save time?
Are all operators provided with the same tools?
Can a special tool be made to improve the operation?
If accurate work is necessary, are proper gages or other measuring instruments provided?
Are gages or other measuring instruments checked for accuracy from, time to time?

Remarks and Conclusions

7, Consider and Record Conclusions on Following Possibilities for Improvement

a. Install gravity delivery chutes
b. Use drop delivery
c. Compare methods if more than one operator is working on job
d. Provide correct chair for operator
e. Improve jigs or fixtures by providing ejectors, quick-acting clamps, etc.
f. Use foot-operated mechanisms
g. Arrange for two-handed operation
h. Arrange tools and parts within normal working area
i. Change layout to eliminate backtracking and to permit coupling of machines (allot multiple machines)
j. Utilize all improvements developed for other jobs

8. Working Conditions

Is light ample and sufficient at all times?
Are the eyes of the operator protected from glare and from reflections from bright surfaces?
Is lighting uniform over the working area?
Has lighting been checked by illumination expert?
Is proper temperature for maximum comfort provided at all times?
Is plant unduly cold in winter, particularly on Monday mornings?
Is plant unduly hot in summer?
Would installation of air-conditioning equipment be justified?
Can fans be used to remove heat from solder pots, furnaces, or other heat-producing equipment?
Could an air curtain be provided to protect operator from intense heat?
Is ventilation good?
Are drafts eliminated?
Can fumes, smoke, and dust be removed by an exhaust system?
Is floor warm and not damp?
If concrete floors are used, can mats or platforms be provided to make standing more comfortable?
Are drinking fountains located near-by?
Is water cool, and is there an adequate supply?
Are washrooms conveniently located?
Are facilities adequate and kept properly clean?
Are lockers provided for coats, hats, and personal belongings?
Have safety factors received due consideration?
Is floor safe, smooth but not slippery?
Is wooden equipment such as work benches in good condition and not splintery?
Are tools and moving drives and parts properly guarded?
Is there any way operator can perform operation without using safety devices or guards?
Has operator been taught safe working practices?
Is clothing of operator proper from safety standpoint?
Are workplace and surrounding space kept clear at all times?
Do plant, benches, or machines need paint?
Does plant present neat, orderly appearance at all times?
How is the amount of finished material counted?
Is there a definite check between pieces completed and pieces paid for?
Can automatic counters be used?
Is pay-roll procedure understandable?
Is the design of the part suitable for good manufacturing practices?
What clerical work is required from the operator in filling out time cards, material requisitions, and the like?
Can this work be delegated to a clerk?
What sorts of delay are likely to be encountered by the operator, and how can they be avoided?
How is defective work handled?
Should operator grind his own tools, or should this be done in toolroom?
Should order department be requested to place fewer orders for larger quantities?
What is the economic lot size for the job being analyzed ?
Are adequate performance records maintained?
Are new men properly introduced to their surroundings, and are sufficient instructions given them?
Are failures to meet standard performance requirements investigated?
Are suggestions from workers encouraged?
Do workers xinderstand the incentive plan under which they work?
Is a real interest developed in the workers in the product on which they are working?
Are working hours suitable for efficient operation?
Is the utilization of costly supply materials checked?

Remarks and conclusions

9. Method

Motion Study

Summary of Results

Describe all improvements made and savings that resulted. List additional improvements that might be made if activity increases or if other conditions change.

Yearly Saving

Other Advantages .

Cost of Analysis

Cost of Changes





Training with a practical example

Each member of the training group should be, given a copy of the analysis check sheet, and its use and purpose should be briefly described. Then an operation from the plant should be selected for analysis. One step of analysis should be taken up at a time. The discussion leader should discuss the first step in
general terms, keeping away from the case operation but bringing up examples from other operations or other industries. The group members should then be required to fill in the analysis check sheet for the step just discussed, analyzing, of course, the selected case operation.

An interesting discussion may be built around the results of the group's analysis. The discussion can lead to a new idea and one idea will lead to another, and the meetings will prove exceptionally interesting.

As a by-product of this type of training, a definite improvement in the job being analyzed may be expected. If the operation involves a fairly large yearly labor cost, the savings resulting from suggestions made by the discussion group may easily offset the cost of the training. In fact, all industrial training on the subject
of methods engineering is usually self-supporting for this same reason.


Saturday, November 23, 2013

Allotment of Work - Job to Operators - Issues



In some cases, material to be processed is placed near the work stations of a number of operators. The operators go to the material and themselves select the jobs they wish to do. This procedure involves a -minimum amount of supervision and clerical work, but it possesses certain serious disadvantages. As has
already been pointed out, some jobs are more desirable from the operator's standpoint than others. They may be easier or lighter or cleaner, or if time allowances are not accurate as is sometimes the case, some jobs may carry looser rates than others, thus permitting higher earnings for a given expenditure of effort.
Regardless of the reason, certain jobs are preferable to others; if the operators are allowed to pick their own jobs, friction is likely to develop. Those who have stronger characters or are physically superior are likely to get the best jobs, and the weaker must take what is left. The least desirable jobs will be slighted altogether as long as there is any other work to do, which causes these jobs to lag and become overdue.

Finally, there is no assurance that the operators will get the jobs for which they are best suited, considering the group as a whole. If the most skilled operator happens to be the strongest, he is likely to select all the easiest jobs, leaving the more difficult jobs to those who are not so well qualified to do them.

Where the group system is used, these difficulties are minimized, but principally because the group leader assumes a function of management and hands out the work to the members of his group. The group knows that sooner or later it will have to handle all jobs sent to it, and so there is less tendency to slight
undesirable work. In the interests of good performance as a group, the skilled men will do the more difficult jobs, leaving the easier tasks to the new or less skilled men. In short, the entire situation is changed; when the group system is used, the selection of jobs may be left to the workers themselves.

Another common procedure is to have all jobs handed out by the foreman. The foreman knows the work, and he knows his men. Therefore, he is in a good position to distribute the work so that it will be performed most effectively. The chief difficulty with this arrangement is that the modern foreman is so loaded
with duties and responsibilities that he often does not have time to plan his work properly. In moments of rush activity, instead of always having several jobs ahead of each operator, he is likely to assign jobs only when men run out of work. When a man comes to him for a job, he is likely to glance at the available
work and assign the first job he sees that he thinks the operator can do. It may not be the one best suited to the operator; perhaps even more important, it may not be the job that is most important from a delivery standpoint.

With regard to this last point, in order to get work through the shop on schedule, the planning or production department must work closely with the foreman. Usually, chasers or expediters call to the attention of the foreman the job that is required next. If there are only a few rush jobs, the foreman may be able to
have them completed as desired. In times of peak activity, however, when the shop is overloaded, all jobs become rush jobs. Each expediter has a long list of jobs to be completed at once. Considerable pressure is brought to bear upon the foreman to get out this job and that, and he is likely to find himself devoting
time to detailed production activities that could better be spent on taking steps to relieve the congestion.

In most up-to-date plants, the foreman is regarded as a very important man. He is called into conferences and meetings and often participates in educational programs. He is, therefore, away from his department at intervals and, if he has the responsibility of giving out jobs, must give out enough work to last until
he returns. If he is called away suddenly or is unexpectedly detained, operators will run out of work. Then they either lose considerable time and hence money which creates dissatisfaction, or they help themselves to another job. If this latter practice is countenanced in a time of emergency, there is a danger that it
will soon develop into a standard practice. If men get their own jobs, the foreman is relieved of a certain amount of work and, if he is otherwise overloaded, may tend to allow operators to select their work with increasing frequency, until all the advantages gained by having the foremen hand out work are lost.

The decisions with respect to the order in which jobs are to be put through the shop are made by the planning or production department. Since they know in what order jobs are wanted, it would, therefore, appear that a representative of this department should cooperate closely with the foreman in giving out the work. The foreman may specify the men who are to work on each job when the orders first reach his department, and a dispatch clerk may give the work to the assigned men in the order of its impor-
tance from a delivery standpoint. This arrangement is followed in a number of plants. Figure 66 shows a typical dispatching station under the control of the production department. Time tickets for each operation on each job are made out in a central planning department and are marked with the date the operation
should be completed. The dispatcher arranges these time tickets in his dispatch board. Each group of machines within the department is assigned a pocket hi the dispatch board, and each pocket has three subdivisions.

The time tickets are received considerably in advance of the material. They are first filed in a subdivision of the proper machine pockets called the "work ahead " division. The number of tickets in the "work ahead" divisions at any time gives a rough idea of the load on the shop. When material for a given job enters the department, the dispatcher Is notified. He then moves the time ticket for the first operation from the "work
ahead" division to the "work ready " division. The time tickets in the latter pocket then show the jobs that are actually ready to be worked upon. When an operator completes one job, he goes to the dispatcher's station and turns in the ticket for that job. The dispatcher then gives him another job by taking the time ticket from the "work ready" division and handing it to him. He selects always the ticket marked with the date nearest
to the current date and thus gets the work done in the desired order.

The rest of the system need not be described here, for it is desired principally to Indicate the manner in which jobs are handed out by a representative of the production department, thus relieving the foreman of this responsibility.

Source: Operation Analysis by Maynard

Normal and Maximum Working Areas - Work Place Layout


Figure 69 (Maynard)  is a sketch showing how the normal and maximum working areas for the hands in the horizontal plane are usually determined. In drawing the sketch, it is assumed that the worker is comfortably seated at or standing by his bench or table of proper height. His arms hang naturally from the shoulders. Placing his right hand on the near edge of the table approximately opposite his left side, he can sweep his right hand through the arc AMB. The area included between this arc and the edge of the table is generally said to represent the normal or most comfortable working area for the right hand.

The points along the arc AMB can be reached with a motion of the third class. To reach all other points within the area bounded by the arc, a fourth-class motion must be employed. It requires more time to make a fourth-class motion than it does to make a third-class motion of the same length. Hence, the arc AMB should receive preference when making layouts.

Even when third-class motions can be employed, motions of equal length cannot be made in the same length of time at all points, along the arc AMB. Motions are made most quickly near point A most slowly at point B. When motions must be made much beyond point M in the direction of point B y fatigue increases materially. The closer the hand approaches B } the more unnatural is the position that the arm must assume. In fact, if the elbow rests on the table, the point B cannot be reached at all.



The arc which bounds the maximum working area is traced
by the fingers when the arm, fully extended, is. pivoted about the
shoulder. For the right hand, this is arc CKD in Fig. 69. The
limitations discussed above do not apply to the maximum area.
All points can be reached by fourth-class motions, and motions
can be made as quickly in one section as in another. In posi-
tioning material within "this area, the chief concern should be to
keep the length of the movements at a minimum. If possible,
the section near BD should not be used. Besides involving
maximum travel, it requires a rather awkward and fatiguing
wrist motion to reach material located in bins anywhere except
at point D, or in other words, when the arm is not fully extended.

The above discussion applies equally to the areas used by the
left hand and arm.

In order to confine all motions to the third class, material
should be placed along the paths that the hands normally follow,
or along the arcs FLE and AMB of Fig. 69. The only point at
which the hands can work together without Involving the use of
shoulder motions to -change the position of the arms is the point J.
In reality, this is not a point but a small area, is determined

by the ^rist and finger motions that can be used without moving

the arms. , ,

In the vertical plane, the arc described by the fingers when a third-class movement Is made is the arc AB of Fig. 70, and the arc CD is the maximum arc made employing a fourth-class move- ment. These arcs determine
the efficient placement of
materials in the vertical plane.
When positioning tools that
are suspended above the work
area, care should be taken to
locate them within the sphere
which would be generated if
the arc CD, Fig. 70, were to be
rotated about the body of the
operator as an axis. If no
other equipment or material
interferes, the tools should be

located On the Sphere which
WQU ^ b e generated by similarly

rotating the arc AB ; but in any
case, they should be located so that they can be reached without
the necessity of employing body movements.

Methods Efficiency Engineering Studies - Detailed to Brief


The more detailed the study, "the greater the amount of time required to make it. With any study, the savings effected must equal or exceed the cost of making the study if the expenditure is to be justified from an economic standpoint.

Type A.

Written job analysis using one or more types of process charts and
analysis sheets.
Motion study employing motion pictures.
Motion time study.
Standardization including motion-picture training.
Time study.

Type B

Written job analysis using analysis sheets.
Motion study by analysis and observation.
Standardization including written instructions.
Time study.

Type C
Mental job analysis.
Standardization including verbal instructions.
Time study.

Type D

Written job analysis of class of work using process charts and analysis
sheets for analysis of representative jobs.
Motion study of representative jobs, usually employing motion
pictures to determine best methods.
Standardization including written instructions.
Time study.
Time formula.

Type E

Mental job analysis during general survey of work.
Motion study by analysis and observation during general survey.
Standardization.
Time study.
Time formula.

Type F

Standard data.

Types A, B, and C are applied particularly to individual jobs. Types D and E are applied to classes of work comprised of similar jobs, and type F is applied to either individual jobs or classes of work where quantities are very small.

The kind and the amount of study that are economically justified on any job or class of work are determined by three principal factors, namely, the repetitiveness of the job, the man-machine content, and the expected life of the job.


Source: Operation Analysis, Chapters 4 and 5, Maynard)

Behavioral Aspects of Industrial Engineering



Occasionally, ideas occur which appear to possess advantages to the originator other than those which can be measured in dollars and cents. In presenting suggestions of this nature, advantages and disadvantages should be presented in tabulated form, so that a decision can be quickly made.

Ideas of this kind are more subject to rejection than those which show definite money savings. Perhaps the advantages to be gained are so largely theoretical that a busy man is not able to visualize them, or perhaps the cost of making the change seems to outweigh the intangible benefits that are expected. If a suggestion of this type is rejected after proper presentation, the suggester should drop it and cease to worry about it. Fretting about unadopted ideas occupies the mind when it should be engaged in originating new suggestions and often causes dissatisfaction and reduces efficiency.

The rejection of an idea does not mean that it possesses no merit. It merely indicates that the benefits it offered did not appear to the one who made the decision to be sufficiently important to warrant expending the effort necessary to get them. The decision is made in the light of such factors as present trends, the future business outlook, and the amount of money available for making improvements. In 6 months or a year, the situation may have changed, and the idea may be welcomed and adopted upon re-presentation. If the idea is presented the second time by another individual, the one who first presented it has a natural tendency to feel discouraged. He must ward off this feeling by recognizing that conditions change and that fresh angles of presentation often lead to the adoption of old ideas. The best antidote against discouragement is to go out and discover another idea. Solving problems and originating suggestions bring satisfaction to the type of men who are in supervisory positions and help to make the daily job more interesting.

(Source:  Chapter 2 - Operation Analysis by Maynard)


Updated 22 August 2017, 23 November 2013

Factory - Early Origin - History

In a factory  workers were concentrated under one roof, and subjected to discipline and supervision.


Pollard (1968) in his classic work on the rise of Factory, mentions three large plants, all employing over 500 employees before 1750.  Perhaps the most “modern” of all industries was silk throwing. The silk mills in Derby built by Thomas Lombe in 1718 employed 300 workers and was located in a five-story building. After Lombe’s patent expired, large mills patterned after his were built in other places as well. Equally famous was the Crowley ironworks, established in 1682 in Stourbridge in the midlands (not far from Birmingham) and which employed at its peak 800 employees.

Richard Arkwright’s works in Cromford employed about 300 workers; he also helped found the New Lanark mills in Scotland which employed a workforce of 1600 in 1815 (most of which were indoor). Such huge firms were unusual, perhaps, but by 1800, there were in Britain around 900 cotton-spinning factories, of which a third were “mills” employing over 50 workers and the rest small sheds and workshops, with a handful of workers – though even those by that time were larger than households.


Cyfarthfa ironworks in Wales which employed 1500 men in 1810 and 5,000 in 1830.


The first factory in the United States was begun after George Washington became President. In 1790, SAMUEL SLATER, a cotton spinner's apprentice who left England the year before with the secrets of textile machinery, built a factory from memory to produce spindles of yarn.

The factory had 72 spindles, powered by by nine children pushing foot treadles, soon replaced by water power. Three years later, JOHN AND ARTHUR SHOFIELD, who also came from England, built the first factory to manufacture woolens in Massachusetts.

From these humble beginnings to the time of the Civil War there were over two million spindles in over 1200 cotton factories and 1500 woolen factories in the United States.


http://time.dufe.edu.cn/jingjiwencong/waiwenziliao/pittsburgh.pdf

http://www.ushistory.org/us/25d.asp