Thursday, August 29, 2013

Creating a Lean and Green Business System: Techniques for Improving Profits and Sustainability - Keivan Zokaei et al. - 2013 Book Information

Creating a Lean and Green Business System: Techniques for Improving Profits and Sustainability

Keivan Zokaei, Hunter Lovins, Andy Wood, Peter Hines

CRC Press, 2013 - Business & Economics - 233 pages
Things that are good for the planet are also good for business. Numerous studies from the likes of the Economist Intelligence Unit, Harvard, MIT Sloan, and others indicate that organizations that commit to goals of zero waste, zero harmful emissions, and zero use of nonrenewable resources clearly outperform their competition.

Like lean thinking, greening your business is not just a ‘nice to have’; at least not anymore. It is now a key economic driver for many forward looking firms. This book is packed with case studies and examples that illustrate how leading firms use lean and green as simultaneous sources of inspiration in various sectors of industry - from automotive and retail to textile and brewing. Take Toyota as an example, the holy grail of economic efficiency for decades. This book, shows that Toyota tops the green chart too, describing Toyota’s notion of Monozukuri: sustainable manufacturing.

Creating a Lean and Green Business System: Techniques for Improving Profits and Sustainability offers opportunities for innovation that can simultaneously reduce dependence on natural resources and enhance global prosperity. It explores less understood aspects of lean and green – discussing their evolution independently as well as the opportunities that exist in their integration, highlighting the importance of a cultural shift across the whole company.

Outlining a systematic way to eliminate harmful waste while generating green value, the book explains how to:

Become economically successful and environmentally sustainable by adopting the lean and green business system model
Adopt a systematic approach to become lean and green, and develop your own roadmap to success
Use the cutting edge tools, techniques, and methodologies developed by the authors
Translate the techniques and culture that underpin lean into environmental improvements
Creating a Lean and Green Business System: Techniques for Improving Profits and Sustainability supplies a new way of thinking that will allow you to boost improvement efforts and create a positively charged work environment – while contributing to the long-term well-being of the environment.

Google Book Link

Application of Lean in Steel Plants - Industry - Technology

Running Steel Lean

Lean in Steel

Essar Steel Hazira plant recognized for Lean manufacturing practices
December 26, 2012

Towards Integrated optimization of steel plant production processes
Case Study: Improving Production Planning in SteelIndustry in 
Light of Lean Principles
Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management
Istanbul, Turkey, July 3 – 6, 2012

Optimizing in-plant supply chain in Steel Plants by integrating Lean Manufacturing & Theory of Constrains through dynamic simulationmore
by Prateek Raj
December 2011


Enhancing Productivity of hot metal in Blast furnace -A case study in an Integrated 
Steel Plant
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)
Vol. 3 No. 4 Apr 2011

Informing Implementers of Lean Strategy in Process Industries – The Central Role of Schedulers
Steel Industry Case
Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology Volume 8, 2011

Product variety and Performance
Joakim Storck
Doctoral Thesis in Production Engineering
Stockholm, Sweden, 2009

Agile Manufacturing, 2007. ICAM 2007. IET International Conference 
Date of Conference: 9-11 July 2007

Leaning into the steel industry: Lean supply and the steel industry
Matthew P. Pepper, University of Wollongong
Trevor A. Spedding, University of Wollongong
Jan 2006

Applying lean thinking: a case study of an Indian steel plant
Vijay Dhandapani, Andrew Potter, Mohamed Naim
International Journal of Logistics-research and Applications - INT J LOGIST-RES APPL 01/2004; 7(3):239-250.

Abdullah, Fawaz Mohammed (2003) LEAN MANUFACTURING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES IN THE PROCESS INDUSTRY WITH A FOCUS ON STEEL. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.

YouTube Videos on Lean Systems and Practices

How to Lead Lean Systems
John Shook - Former Toyota Manager
Uploaded 17 July 2012 by Industry Week


Value Stream Walk - Jim Womack
July 2012


Toyota Kata by Author Mike Rother


Lean Six Sigma

Best Practices in Lean Six Sigma Process Improvement

Richard J. Schonberger
John Wiley & Sons, 03-Mar-2008 - Business & Economics - 368 pages
Best Practices in Lean Six Sigma Process Improvement reveals how to refocus lean/six sigma processes on what author Richard Schonberger—world-renowned process improvement pioneer—calls "the Golden Goals": better quality, quicker response, greater flexibility, and higher value. This manual shows you how it can be done, employing success stories of over 100 companies including Apple, Illinois Tool Works, Dell, Inc., and Wal-Mart, all of which have established themselves as the new, global "Kings of Lean," surpassing even Toyota in long-term improvement.
Google Book Link with preview facility

Application of Lean in Cement Industry

Creating a Lean Energy Culture with Sustainability: A Case Study on Holcim

Lean system in Holcim

Lean system in Cemex

Application of the Lean Philosophy to reduce Carbon Emissions in the Precast Concrete Industry of Singapore

Taher Tourki
A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement of De Montfort
University for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

Tuesday, August 27, 2013

Material Waste Reduction - Example

From the Chapter

Operational Excellence: A Manufacturing Metamorphosis at Western Geophysical Exploration Products
by Mark F. McGovern and Brian J. Andrews
in Becoming Lean - Inside Stories of US Manufacturers by Jeffrey K. Liker
Google Book Link -

At each step in the cabling process, extra cable is being manufactured for uncertainty in the downstream operations, as a longer cable can be cut as required and shorter cable would become waste. But in the lean mindset this notion was challenged.

The team started collecting the data. Analysis showed that significant amount of money is wasted in creating extra long lengths. The finished cable needs to be 1250 feet. Two most expensive elements of the cable are being bought in lengths of 1450 feet. Though analysis of the data, the purchased length was adjusted. The annual savings of this one improvement saved more than $320,000 for WGEP.

Lean Solutions: How Companies and Customers Can Create Value and Wealth Together - James P. Womack, Daniel T. Jones - 2009 - Book Information

Womack and Jones deconstruct the broken producer-consumer model and show businesses how to repair it, by providing the full value consumers desire from products without wasting time or effort.
Why is it that, when our computers or our cell phones fail to satisfy our needs, virtually every interaction with help lines, support centers, or any organization providing service is marked with wasted time and extra hassle? In their bestselling business classic Lean Thinking, James Womack and Daniel Jones introduced the world to the principles of lean production—principles for eliminating waste during production. Now, in Lean Solutions, the authors establish the groundbreaking principles of lean consumption, showing companies how to eliminate inefficiency during consumption.

Lean Solutions is full of surprising success stories: Fujitsu, a leading service company for technology, has transformed the way call centers solve problems—learning how to eliminate the underlying cause of current problems rather than fixing them again and again. An extremely successful car dealership has adopted lean principles to streamline its business, making for dramatically reduced wait time, fewer return trips, and greater satisfaction for customers—and a far more lucrative enterprise. Lean Solutions will inspire managers to take the first steps toward perfecting their company's process of giving consumers what they really want.

Simon and Schuster, 01-Dec-2009 - Business & Economics - 368 pages

Google Book Link

Saturday, August 24, 2013

Interesting Moving Work Station Design by a Worker - India

In a textile factory, changing the thread spindles when they ran out was a physically stressful job. It required a team of two--one pushing a cart with the fresh spindles, and the other constantly having to move the stool, climb up and replace the spindle, and climb down. The guy on the stool was often taking sick leave because of the physical demands, which sometimes led to falls and other injuries.

A factory worker observed this problem. In his own time after work, the factory worker began experimenting with how to propel the stool so that the worker didn't have to keep getting up and down. Eventually he had the idea to put wheels on the stool, and then he rigged up an electric motor to propel it. In a final ingenious flash, he adapted a sewing machine pedal to the mechanism so that the worker could stop and start it at will. The results? Less sick time, less injury, and greater efficiency and productivity.

Interesting moving work station design.


Why CEOs need to be creative?

Breakthrough Thinking - Prof Shozo Hibino

Mr.Kiichiro Toyoda, a founder of Toyota Motor, tried to think the real substance (purpose) of the
belt conveyor, shown by Mr. Ford, without introducing it directly. He could find the purpose of
the belt conveyor is not to produce parts as many as possible, but to cruise or produce parts in
just-in-time. This purpose created the innovative production system, called “Toyota Production
System”, which was completely different from Ford Production System. Toyota Production
System has bypassed the Ford Motor Production System at this point. Many automobile
manufacturing companies have studied Toyota Production System.

Philosophically this new design approach is backed up by Breakthrough Thinking Paradigm
proposed by Shozo Hibino & Gerald Nadler, different from the conventional Descartes
Thinking Paradigm.

Toyota never imitated Ford Production System, because she thought Toyota and Ford
were completely different in size and culture at her initial stage.

Number of ideas are illustrated by reference to Toyota in this article

Inside the Mind of Toyota - Satoshi Hino - 2005 - Book Information

Inside the Mind of Toyota: Management Principles for Enduring Growth

Satoshi Hino

Productivity Press, 2006 - Business & Economics - 327 pages

In Inside the Mind of Toyota: Management Principles for Enduring Growth, Satoshi Hino examines the source of Toyota's strength: the fundamental thinking and management structures that lie beneath the creation of its famed Toyota Production System. From the perspective of a professional with 30 years experience in the auto industry, Hino presents a fresh and detailed analysis of Toyota's essential management system, from its very beginnings into the 21st century.

The ultimate goal is not simply to mimic Toyota's formula, but to learn from it and, in doing so, surpass it.

Google Book Link with Preview Facility

Target costing idea was developed by Kiichiro Toyoda taking inspiration from Henry Ford.  Page 7

Friday, August 23, 2013

Lean Manufacturing System - Toyota Production System As Described by Toyota Global
Accessed on 23 August 2013

This explanation by Toyota Globla is very clear.

Toyota Production System is a production system which is steeped in the philosophy of "the complete elimination of all waste" imbuing all aspects of production in pursuit of the most efficient methods.

This production control system has been established based on many years of continuous improvements, with the objective of "making the vehicles ordered by customers in the quickest and most efficient way, in order to deliver the vehicles as quickly as possible."

The Toyota Production System (TPS) was established based on two concepts: The first is called "jidoka" (which can be loosely translated as "automation with a human touch") which means that when a problem occurs, the equipment stops immediately, preventing defective products from being produced; The second is the concept of "Just-in-Time," in which each process produces only what is needed by the next process in a continuous flow.


Highlighting/visualization of problems

-Quality must be built in during the manufacturing process!-
If equipment malfunction or a defective part is discovered, the affected machine automatically stops, and operators cease production and correct the problem.
For the Just-in-Time system to function, all of the parts that are made and supplied must meet predetermined quality standards. This is achieved through jidoka.
Jidoka means that a machine safely stops when the normal processing is completed. It also means that, should a quality / equipment problem arise, the machine detects the problem on its own and stops, preventing defective products from being produced. As a result, only products satisfying quality standards will be passed on to the following processes on the production line.
Since a machine automatically stops when processing is completed or when a problem arises and is communicated via the "andon" (problem display board), operators can confidently continue performing work at another machine, as well as easily identify the problem's cause to prevent its recurrence. This means that each operator can be in charge of many machines, resulting in higher productivity, while continuous improvements lead to greater processing capacity.


Productivity improvement

- Making only "what is needed, when it is needed, and in the amount needed!"
Producing quality products efficiently through the complete elimination of waste, inconsistencies, and unreasonable requirements on the production line.
In order to deliver a vehicle ordered by a customer as quickly as possible, the vehicle is efficiently built within the shortest possible period of time by adhering to the following:
When a vehicle order is received, a production instruction must be issued to the beginning of the vehicle production line as soon as possible.
The assembly line must be stocked with required number of all needed parts so that any type of ordered vehicle can be assembled.
The assembly line must replace the parts used by retrieving the same number of parts from the parts-producing process (the preceding process).
The preceding process must be stocked with small numbers of all types of parts and produce only the numbers of parts that were retrieved by an operator from the next process.

Jidoka - Even machines do not produce defective parts. This means, human operator will not produce a defective part and pass it on to the next stage.

JIT - Flexible machines with very small set up times

Scientific Management - Introduction - F.W.Taylor

The writer asserts as a general principle (and he proposes to give illustrations tending to prove the fact later in this paper) that in almost all of the mechanic arts the science which underlies each act of
each workman is so great and amounts to so much that the workman who is best suited to actually doing the work is incapable of fully understanding this science, without the guidance and help of those who are working with him or over him, either through lack of education or through insufficient mental capacity. In order that the work may be done in accordance with scientific laws, it is necessary that there shall be a far more equal division of the responsibility between the management and the workmen than exists under any of the ordinary types of management. Those in the management whose duty it is to develop this science should also guide and help the workman in working under it, and should assume a much larger share of the responsibility for results than under usual conditions is assumed by the management.

The body of this paper will make it clear that, to work according to scientific laws, the management must take over and perform much of the work which is now left to the men; almost every act of the workman should be preceded by one or more preparatory acts of the management which enable him to do his work better and quicker than he otherwise could. And each man should daily be taught by and receive the most friendly help from those who are over him, instead of being, at the one extreme, driven or coerced by his bosses, and at the other left to his own unaided devices.

This close, intimate, personal cooperation between the management and the men is of the essence of modern scientific or task management.

It will be shown by a series of practical illustrations that, through this friendly cooperation, namely, through sharing equally in every day's burden, all of the great obstacles (above described) to obtaining the maximum output for each man and each machine in the establishment are swept away. The 30 per cent to 100 per cent increase in wages which the workmen are able to earn beyond what they receive under the old type of management, coupled with the daily intimate shoulder to shoulder contact with the management, entirely removes all cause for soldiering. And in a few years, under this system, the workmen have before them the object lesson of seeing that a great increase in the output per man results in giving employment to more men, instead of throwing men out of work, thus completely eradicating the fallacy that a larger output for each man will throw other men out of work.

It is the writer's judgment, then, that while much can be done and should be done by writing and talking toward educating not only workmen, but all classes in the community, as to the importance of obtaining the maximum output of each man and each machine, it is only through the adoption of modern scientific management that this great problem can be  finally solved. Probably most of the readers of this paper will say that all of this is mere theory. On the contrary, the theory, or philosophy, of scientific management is just beginning to be understood, whereas the management itself has been a gradual evolution, extending over a period of nearly thirty years. And during this time the employees of one company after another, including a large range and diversity of industries, have gradually changed from the ordinary to the scientific type of management. At least 50,000 workmen in the United States are now employed under this system; and they are receiving from 30 per cent to 100 per cent higher wages daily than are paid to men of similar caliber with whom they are surrounded, while the companies employing them are more prosperous than ever before. In these companies the output, per man and per machine, has on an average been doubled. During all these years there has never been a single strike among the men working under this system. In place of the suspicious watchfulness and the more or less open warfare which characterizes the ordinary types of management, there is universally friendly cooperation between the management and the men.

Several papers have been written, describing the expedients which have been adopted and the details which have been developed under scientific management and the steps to be taken in changing from the ordinary to the scientific type. But unfortunately most of the readers of these papers have mistaken the mechanism for the true essence. Scientific management fundamentally consists of certain broad general principles, a certain philosophy, which can be applied in many ways, and a description of what any one man or men may believe to be the best mechanism for applying these general principles should in no way be confused with the principles themselves.

It is not here claimed that any single panacea exists for all of the troubles of the working-people or of employers. As long as some people are born lazy or inefficient, and others are born greedy and brutal, as long as vice and crime are with us, just so long will a certain amount of poverty, misery, and unhappiness be with us Also. No system of management, no single expedient--within the control of any man or any set of men can insure continuous prosperity to either workmen or employers. Prosperity depends upon so many factors entirely beyond the control of any one set of men, any state, or even any one country, that certain periods will inevitably come when both sides must suffer, more
or less. It is claimed, however, that under scientific management the intermediate periods will be far more prosperous, far happier, and more free from discord and dissension. And also, that the periods will be fewer, shorter and the suffering less. And this will be particularly true in any one town, any one section of the country, or any one state which first substitutes the principles of scientific management for the rule of thumb.

That these principles are certain to come into general use practically throughout the civilized world, sooner or later, the writer is profoundly convinced, and the sooner they come the better for all the

F.W. Taylor, Scientific Management

All Chapters
F.W. Taylor Scientific Management - With Appropriate Sections

Next Chapter

Manufacturing Process Selection Handbook - 2013 Book - K. G. Swift, J. D. Booker - Book Information

Manufacturing Process Selection Handbook: From design to manufacture (Google eBook)

K. G. Swift, J. D. Booker

Butterworth-Heinemann, 15-Feb-2013 - Technology & Engineering - 456 pages

Manufacturing Process Selection Handbook provides engineers and designers with process knowledge and the essential technological and cost data to guide the selection of manufacturing processes early in the product development cycle.

Building on content from the authors’ earlier introductory Process Selection guide, this expanded handbook begins with the challenges and benefits of identifying manufacturing processes in the design phase and appropriate strategies for process selection. The bulk of the book is then dedicated to concise coverage of different manufacturing processes, providing a quick reference guide for easy comparison and informed decision making.

For each process examined, the book considers key factors driving selection decisions, including:

Basic process descriptions with simple diagrams to illustrate
Notes on material suitability
Notes on available process variations
Economic considerations such as costs and production rates
Typical applications and product examples
Notes on design aspects and quality issues
Providing a quick and effective reference for the informed selection of manufacturing processes with suitable characteristics and capabilities, Manufacturing Process Selection Handbook is intended to quickly develop or refresh your experience of selecting optimal processes and costing design alternatives in the context of concurrent engineering. It is an ideal reference for those working in mechanical design across a variety of industries and a valuable learning resource for advanced students undertaking design modules and projects as part of broader engineering programs.

Google Book Link

Foundation of Scientific Management - F.W. Taylor

The principal object of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for each employee.

The words "maximum prosperity" are used, in their broad sense, to mean not only large dividends for the company or owner, but the development of every branch of the business to its highest state of excellence, so that the prosperity may be permanent. In the same way maximum prosperity for each employee means not only higher wages than are usually received by men of his class, but, of more importance still, it also means the development of each man to his state of maximum efficiency, so that he may be able to do, generally speaking, the highest grade of work for which his natural abilities fit him, and it further means giving him, when possible, this class of work to do.

It would seem to be so self-evident that maximum prosperity for the employer, coupled with maximum prosperity for the employee, ought to be the two leading objects of management, that even to state this fact should be unnecessary. And yet there is no question that, throughout the industrial world, a large part of the organization of employers, as well as employees, is for war rather than for peace, and that perhaps the majority on either side do not believe that it is possible so to arrange their mutual relations that their interests become identical.

The majority of these men believe that the fundamental interests of employees and employers are necessarily antagonistic. Scientific management, on the contrary, has for its very foundation the firm
conviction that the true interests of the two are one and the same; that prosperity for the employer cannot exist through a long term of years unless it is accompanied by prosperity for the employee, and vice versa; and that it is possible to give the workman what he most wants--high wages--and the employer what he wants--a low labor cost--for his manufactures.

It is hoped that some at least of those who do not sympathize with each of these objects may be led to modify their views; that some employers, whose attitude toward their workmen has been that of trying to get the largest amount of work out of them for the smallest possible wages, may be led to see that a more liberal policy toward their men will pay them better; and that some of those workmen who begrudge a fair and even a large profit to their employers, and who feel that all of the fruits of their labor should belong to them, and that those for whom they work and the capital invested in the business are entitled to little or nothing, may be led to modify these views.

No one can be found who will deny that in the case of any single individual the greatest prosperity can exist only when that individual has reached his highest state of efficiency; that is, when he is turning out his largest daily output.

The truth of this fact is also perfectly clear in the case of two men working together. To illustrate: if you and your workman have become so skillful that you and he together are making two pairs of, shoes in a day, while your competitor and his workman are making only one pair, it is clear that after selling your two pairs of shoes you can pay your workman much higher wages than your competitor who produces only one pair of shoes is able to pay his man, and that there will still be enough money left over for you to have a larger profit than your competitor.

In the case of a more complicated manufacturing establishment, it should also be perfectly clear that the greatest permanent prosperity for the workman, coupled with the greatest prosperity for the employer, can be brought about only when the work of the establishment is done with the smallest combined expenditure of human effort, plus nature's resources, plus the cost for the use of capital in the shape of machines, buildings, etc. Or, to state the same thing in a different way: that the greatest prosperity can exist only as the result of the greatest possible productivity of the men and machines of the establishment--that is, when each man and each machine are turning out the largest possible output; because unless your men and your machines are daily turning out more work than others around you, it is clear that competition will prevent your paying higher wages to your workmen than are paid to those of your competitor. And what is true as to the possibility of paying high wages in the case of two companies competing close beside one another is also true as to whole districts of the country and even as to nations which are in competition. In a word, that maximum prosperity can exist only as the result of maximum productivity. Later in this paper illustrations will be given of several companies which are earning large dividends and at the same time paying from 30 per cent to 100 per cent higher wages to their men than are paid to similar men immediately around them, and with whose employers they are in competition. These illustrations will cover different types of work, from the most elementary to the most complicated.

If the above reasoning is correct, it follows that the most important object of both the workmen and the management should be the training and development of each individual in the establishment, so that he can do (at his fastest pace and with the maximum of efficiency) the highest class of work for which his natural abilities fit him.

F.W. Taylor, Scientific Management

All Chapters
F.W. Taylor Scientific Management - With Appropriate Sections

Next chapter
3. Soldiering and Its Causes

Article part of
July - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

Thursday, August 22, 2013

Production Processes: The Productivity Handbook - Book Information

Production Processes: The Productivity Handbook

Roger William Bolz

Industrial Press Inc., 1977 - Technology & Engineering - 1089 pages
Reviews all the latest developments and refinements, including their design details, materials, practical tolerances, and working finishes. Features over 1,200 charts and illustrations in 69 chapters. Allows the reader to objectively evaluate and compare different processes and equipment with their inherent advantages for any particular application.

5th Edition 1981

Industrial Engineering And Production Management - Martand Telsang - Book Information

Publisher S. Chand & Co.

Google Book Link with Preview Facility

Tuesday, August 20, 2013

World Class Industrial Engineering

World Class Manufacturing is popular.

I saw today World Class Quality and World Class Supply Chain Management.

How to define World Class Industrial Engineering?

20 August 2013

How to identify world class IE departments in companies?

I posted the question in three communities related to IE on Linkedin.

IIE 2014 Student Conference Schedule

University region conferences:

Provide a forum for the presentation of student papers reflecting undergraduate research and industry-based projects.
Stimulate research and creative thinking through team competitions.
Promote leadership, communication and organizational skills.
Develop networking skills and contacts.
Strengthen communication among chapters within the region and with IIE.!

Asia region is yet to be announced.

Monday, August 19, 2013

Ergonomics - Bibliography

Virtual Ergonomics: Taking Human Factors into Account for Improved Product and Processes
Dassault Systems, 2009
Human TM
Ergonomic Requirements for Human Safety and Productivity
Project cofunded by European Commission 2006

Ergonomics Guidelines and Problem Solving (Google eBook)
A. Mital, Å. Kilbom, S. Kumar
Elsevier, 31-Jan-2000 - Technology & Engineering - 492 pages
There is an urgent need to disseminate ergonomics "know-how" to the work place. This book meets that need by providing clear guidelines and problem solving recommendations to assist the practitioner in decisions that directly protect the health, safety and well-being of the worker.
The guidelines have evolved from a series of symposia on Ergonomic Guidelines and Problem Solving. Initially experts in each area selected were asked to write draft guidelines. These guidelines were circulated to participants at the symposia and to other experts for review before being comprehensively revised. In some instances these guidelines cannot be considered complete but it is important now to put some recommendations forward as guidelines. It is hoped that as new research emerges each guideline will be updated.
Each guideline has been divided into two parts. Part I contains the guidelines for the practitioner and Part II provides the scientific basis or the knowledge for the guide. Such separation of the applied and theoretical content was designed to facilitate rapid incorporation of the guide into practice.
The target audience for this book is the practitioner. The practitioner may be a manager, production system designer, shop supervisor, occupational health and safety professional, union representative, labor inspector or production engineer. For each of the guidelines, relevant practitioners are described.

Topics covered include work space design, tool design, work-rest schedules, illumination and maintenance.

What to look for when selecting or modifying handtools to provide better fit with the user

Original knol - 3744

Productivity Improvement Case Studies - Bibliography

Enhancement in productivity in sheet metal industry through Lean Principles
International Journal on Emerging Technologies 4(1): 186-191(2013)

productivity Improvement Case Study for Solution

Productivity Measurement and Improvement: Organizational Case Studies
Robert D. Pritchard
Greenwood Publishing Group, 01-Jan-1995 - Business & Economics - 380 pages
Improving organizational productivity is an important current and future issue. The improvement can be effected by changing technology, or by changing the way in which people work. The concern of this work is how to structure work so that people can and will want to maximize their productivity using a special approach to measurement and improvement of organizational productivity defined by the author - ProMES (Productivity Measurement and Enchancement System). ProMES is a way of motivating people to maximize their productivity. This book describes a series of cases where ProMES was applied to improve productivity in service and manufacturing organizations in a variety of different organizations in different countries. Results indicate very large increases in productivity, much larger than those typically found. Lessons learned from these cases for future productivity improvement efforts are summarized.

Productivity Improvement Consultants - Case Studies

Oxford, Holt and Company


Work Station Design - An Activity of Human Effort Engineering - Bibliography


The ergonomic Design of Work Stations Using Virtual Manufacturing and Response Surface Methodology
IIE Transactions, 2002, 34, 375-391

Work Station Design - ILO Occupations Safety Handbook Chapter

Work Station Design Strategies (COPE)

A revolution in chair, work station design

Modular work station design for aircraft - An abstract of a patent

Transit Bus Operator Work Station Design for a Diverse Population - SAE Technical paper published 1995

Computer Work Station Design

Work station design and work tools - ILO Book Chapter

Ergonomics and Work Station Design - Dr. Mark Vettraino, September 2003

Work Station Design -- What Makes it Ergonomically Correct?

By Balraj Singh Brar, Chandandeep Singh Grewal, Kuldeep Kumar Sareen

originally posted in Knol 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 1366

Software Process Efficiency - Bibliography

Information and Operations Management Department
School of Business Administration
University of Southern California
Los Angeles, CA 90089-1421, USA
(Appears in Advances in Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, D. Hurley (ed.),
    Volume 4, pp. 37-70, (1995)., December 1994

Measuring software process efficiency

Managing waste in knowledge work - podcast - David J. Anderson

An industrial engineering approach to software development
D.N. Card
Computer Sciences Corporation, Silver Spring, MarylandUSA
R.A. Berg
Synercom, Inc., Houston, TexasUSA
Many different tools and techniques have been developed to increase software quality and productivity. However, periodic acquisition of improved methods and tools, by itself, does not ensure continual improvement. To be effective, new technology must be integrated into an underlying process. That process must be managed explicitly. This paper describes an industrial engineering approach that treats software development as a process distinct from its unique application to any specific project. Its essential elements include formal process definition, software measurement, process engineering, and quality control. Although already successfully embedded in many manufacturing processes, application of industrial engineering techniques to software remains a novelty. Nevertheless, this approach provides the software enterprise with a long-term plan for improving software quality and productivity.
Journal of Systems and Software
Volume 10, Issue 3, October 1989, Pages 159–168

Sunday, August 18, 2013

Manufacturing Systems Conference 2013 Papers - Bibliography

Forty Sixth CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems 2013

11. A study on the heating process for forging of an automotive
crankshaft in terms of energy efficiency

38. Methodology for energy efficiency on process level

39 A systematic approach on developing action-oriented, competencybased Learning Factories

42. An approach for a cloud-based machine tool control

49. A Study of Automatic Determination of Cutting Conditions to
Minimize Machining Cost

55. Concurrent Product – Supply Chain Design: A Conceptual
Framework & Literature Review

57. Beyond Lean and Six Sigma; Cross-Collaborative Improvement of  Tolerances and Process Variations - A Case Study

60. Milkrun Vehicle Routing Approach for Shop-floor Logistics
61. Methodology for the assessment of structural complexity in global
production networks

62. Current State of Standardized Work in Automotive Industry in

64. Manufacturing of Twist-Free Surfaces by Hard Turning

Use of Statistics in Engineering and Technology - Bibliography

Technometrics - Journal

Technometrics contributes to the development and use of statistical methods in the physical, chemical, and engineering sciences as well as information sciences and technology. It features papers that describe new statistical techniques; illustrate innovative applications of known statistical methods; or review methods, issues, or philosophy in a particular area of statistics or science. Articles are expected to include adequate justification of the application of the technique, preferably by means of an actual application to a problem in the physical, chemical, engineering or information sciences.

Technometrics is co-published four times per year by ASQ and the American Statistical Association (ASA).

SPC - Statistical Process Control in Injection Molding and Extrusion
Chris Rauwendaal
Hanser Verlag, 01-Jan-2008 - 250 pages

Statistics in Industry
Ravindra Khattree, Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao

Gulf Professional Publishing, 01-Jan-2003 - Mathematics - 1187 pages
A state-of-the-art exposition of topics in the field of industrial statistics DESCRIPTION: The Handbook of Statistics, a series of self-contained reference books. Each volume is devoted to a particular topic in statistics. Every chapter is written by prominent workers in the area to which the volume is devoted. The series is addressed to the entire community of statisticians and scientists in various disciplines who use statistical methodology in their work. At the same time, special emphasis is placed on applications-oriented techniques, with the applied statistician in mind as the primary audience. This volume presents a state of the art exposition of topics in the field of industrial statistics. It serves as an invaluable reference for the researchers in industrial statistics/industrial engineering and an up to date source of information for practicing statisticians/industrial engineers. A variety of topics in the areas of industrial process monitoring, industrial experimentation, industrial modelling and data analysis are covered and are authored by leading researchers or practitioners in the particular specialized topic. Targeting the audiences of researchers in academia as well as practitioners and consultants in industry, the book provides comprehensive accounts of the relevant topics. In addition, whenever applicable ample data analytic illustrations are provided with the help of real world data. TABLE OF CONTENTS: Part 1: Statistics in Research and Development; Part 2: Statistics in on-line Industrial Processes; Part 3: Measurement Processes; Part 4: Statistical Inferential Techniques useful in Industrial Applications; Part 5: Software Reliability

A Primer on Experiments with Mixtures

John A. Cornell

John Wiley & Sons, 26-Sep-2011 - Mathematics - 368 pages
A Primer on Experiments with Mixtures provides an introductory presentation of the key principles behind experimenting with mixtures. Outlining useful techniques through an applied approach with examples from real research situations, the book supplies a comprehensive discussion of how to design and set up basic mixture experiments, then analyze the data and draw inferences from results.

Drawing from his extensive experience teaching the topic at various levels, the author presents the mixture experiments in an easy-to-follow manner that is void of unnecessary formulas and theory. Succinct presentations explore key methods and techniques for carrying out basic mixture experiments, including:

Designs and models for exploring the entire simplex factor space, with coverage of simplex-lattice and simplex-centroid designs, canonical polynomials, the plotting of individual residuals, and axial designs

Multiple constraints on the component proportions in the form of lower and/or upper bounds, introducing L-Pseudocomponents, multicomponent constraints, and multiple lattice designs for major and minor component classifications

Techniques for analyzing mixture data such as model reduction and screening components, as well as additional topics such as measuring the leverage of certain design points

Models containing ratios of the components, Cox's mixture polynomials, and the fitting of a slack variable model

A review of least squares and the analysis of variance for fitting data

Each chapter concludes with a summary and appendices with details on the technical aspects of the material. Throughout the book, exercise sets with selected answers allow readers to test their comprehension of the material, and References and Recommended Reading sections outline further resources for study of the presented topics.

A Primer on Experiments with Mixtures is an excellent book for one-semester courses on mixture designs and can also serve as a supplement for design of experiments courses at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also a suitable reference for practitioners and researchers who have an interest in experiments with mixtures and would like to learn more about the related mixture designs and models.

Statistical Case Studies for Industrial Process Improvement
Veronica Czitrom, Patrick D. Spagon
SIAM, 1997 - Mathematics - 514 pages
American industry is becoming more aware of the importance of applying statistical methods to improve its competitive edge in the world market. Examples of real industrial applications can serve as a major motivator for industries that want to increase their use of statistical methods. This book contains a broad selection of case studies written by professionals in the semiconductor industry that illustrate the use of statistical methods to improve manufacturing processes. These case studies offer engineers, scientists, technicians, and managers numerous examples of best-in-class practices by their peers. Because of the universal nature of statistical applications, the methods described here can be applied to a wide range of industries, including the chemical, biotechnology, automotive, steel, plastics, textile, and food industries.
30 Papers in the book


Case Studies and Applications

1. Cylinder Line Boring Case Study

2. Implementation of SPC Techniques in Automotive Industry: A Case Study
Dr. D. R. Prajapati
Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, PEC University of Technology (formerly Punjab Engineering College), Chandigarh-160012 (India),   2012 paper

MAY 2003

4. Real Time Statistical Process Control Systems for Saw Mills

5. Process Control Tool for a Production Line at Nokia - 2000

6. Statistical Methods for Monitoring Service Processes

7. Statistical Quality Control in Cable Industry
Case Study: Copper Consumption Reduction in Nexans IKO Sweden
Industrial Engineering,%20Sabet%20Azad.pdf

8. The use of Statistical Process Control Technique in the Ceramic Tile Manufacturing: a Case Study
2012 Paper

9. Forty Sixth CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems 2013
Statistical Process Control as a Service: An Industrial Case Study
Gašper Škulja, Rok Vrabiča,, Peter Butalaa, Alojzij Slugaa

2004 MS Thesis

Thursday, August 15, 2013

Jigs and Fixtures - YouTube Videos, Books, Manuals

Jig and Fixture Design, 1920 book by Franklin Day Jones link

Jig & Fixture Design - Edward G, Hoffman, 2004
Google Book Link -

Tool Engineering - Jigs and Fixtures - 1922 - Alfred Dowd

Jig and Fixture Design Manual
Erik K. Henriksen

IGNOU Course material

Jigs and Fixtures of Machine Shop
NPTEL Lecture 33

Lecture material for Lecture 33

Design and Appliocation of Jigs and Fixtures -Lec 34 NPTEL


Course material for nPTEL 34 Lecture
______________ ______________

More Videos

Case Studies  Press Rivet Clutch

Weld Fixture Design Lessons

Related Videos on Weld Fixture Design



Shoe Printing Fixture - Industrial Engineering Project - 2012 - Video



Monday, August 12, 2013

Industrial Engineering - Principles and Propositions

Principles of Efficiency - Harrington Emerson

1. Clearly defined ideals.
2. Common sense
3. Competent counsel
4. Discipline
5. The fair deal
6. Reliable, immediate and adequate records
7. Despatching
8. Standards and schedules
9. Standardized conditions
10. Standardized operations
11. Written standard-practice instructions
12. Efficiency-reward

Friday, August 9, 2013

Technology Efficiency Engineering


Technology Absorption in South Africa
2011 presenation

Fostering Technology Absorption in Southern African Enterprises
The World Bank
World Bank Publications, 16-Sep-2011 - Technology & Engineering - 224 pages
While economic theory considers technological progress to be a key factor for sustained long-term economic growth and job creation, technology absorption is particularly an important driver for 'catch-up growth.' This study seeks to identify channels of technology transfer and absorption for Southern African enterprises, constraints to greater technology absorption, and discuss policy options open to governments and the private sector in light of relevant international experience. It has been done based on sector and enterprise case studies carried in four countries: South Africa, Mauritius, Lesotho and Namibia. This study uses a combination of econometric and in depth case study analyses to investigate the presence of specific channels of absorption and the various constraints that the firms face to effectively absorb this technology. There is evidence of learning by exporting, and spillovers from FDI underscoring the importance of trade and FDI as important channels of absorption. The study finds that four countries while open to trade and FDI face a number of constraints that inhibit them from maximizing the economic benefits from technology absorption. These constraints include a major skills mismatch, insufficient research and development and ineffective industry-research linkages. While outlining broad policy directions in four areas namely increasing skills supply, fostering learning through trade, increasing domestic spillovers from FDI and incentivizing greater firm level research and development, it lays out some priority areas for each of the four countries. We hope that the issues discussed and the dialogue initiated during the course of this study would lend itself to policy design to foster technology absorption with a view to higher growth and job creation in this highly globalized world.

Industrial Development and Technology: Absorption in Indian Steel Industry

Tuesday, August 6, 2013

Raising the productivity of Interaction Workers

Raise the productivity of interaction workers—high-skill knowledge workers, including managers and professionals—by 20 to 25 percent by using social technologies internally and externally.

McKinsey Global Report July 2012

Personal Productivity Tips Shared by Productivity Pro on Google+ (Plus)

Your boss is paying you for the very best you can give them. Do not cheat them OR yourself.

 Do you really need to work so long to get it all done...or are you just being inefficient?

Join a professional group specific to your field, so you can benefit from their advice.

Empty your inboxes at least once daily, so the chore does not get ahead of you.

Clear the clutter from your workspace, so you can think and plan with less distraction.

 Surround yourself with happy things in your workplace, to make work more enjoyable.

If you truly want to maximize your productivity, you need to enjoy what you do.

File paperwork a few times a month, at least. You cannot afford to let those files pile up.

The better you can do your work, the sooner you can leave the office.

Exercise regularly! Ironically, the less active you are, the less energy you have.

Do not fear failure—but never assume it is inevitable.

Stop believing you have no control over your stress, and change the situation!

Readjust your expectations to fit within your energy levels; stop running your battery dry.

A good rule of thumb: you should earn or save your company 3 times your base salary yearly.

Give your tasks 110% of your energy and focus, so you do not undershoot the mark.

Ever heard of the Japanese concept of Karoshi? Look it up and think about it.

 Will attending a particular meeting help accomplish your work goals? If not, forget it.

Top 50 Productivity Blogs

Knowledge Worker Productivity

Peter F. Drucker gave a call for knowledge worker productivity.

Can IEs do some things in that area?

Raise the productivity of interaction workers—high-skill knowledge workers, including managers and professionals—by 20 to 25 percent by using social technologies internally and externally.

Sunday, August 4, 2013

Lean Systems - Design, Development and Improvement - Bibliography

The Lean Certification Handbook
Anthony Manos, Chad Vincent
ASQ Quality Press, 11-Jun-2012 - 464 pages

Lean Software Development and IT Enabled Services - Bibliography

Lean Solutions: How Companies and Customers Can Create Value and Wealth Together
James P. Womack, Daniel T. Jones
Simon and Schuster, 01-Dec-2009 - Business & Economics - 368 pages

The Machine That Changed the World
James P. Womack, Daniel T. Jones, Daniel Roos
1990 book printed with an afterword in 2007

Lean Manufacturing Implementation: A Complete Execution Manual for Any Size Manufacturer
Dennis P. Hobbs
J. Ross Publishing, 2004 - Business & Economics - 244 pages

Book Review of Lean Thinking by Womack and Jones - Anna Lisa Wiegel - 2000 

Underlying Philosophy for the Old Systems of Management - F.W. Taylor in Scientific Management

This paper will show that the underlying philosophy of all of the old systems of management in common use makes it imperative that each workman shall be left with the final responsibility for doing his job practically as he thinks best, with comparatively little help and advice from the management. And it will also show that because of this isolation of workmen, it is in most cases impossible for the men working under these systems to do their work in accordance with the rules and laws of a science or art, even where one exists.

The writer asserts as a general principle (and he proposes to give illustrations tending to prove the fact later in this paper) that in almost all of the mechanic arts the science which underlies each act of
each workman is so great and amounts to so much that the workman who is best suited to actually doing the work is incapable of fully understanding this science, without the guidance and help of those who are working with him or over him, either through lack of education or through insufficient mental capacity. In order that the work may be done in accordance with scientific laws, it is necessary that there shall be a far more equal division of the responsibility between the management and the workmen than exists under any of the ordinary types of management. Those in the management whose duty it is to develop this science should also guide and help the workman in working under it, and should assume a much larger share of the responsibility for results than under usual conditions is assumed by the management.

F.W. Taylor, Scientific Management

All Chapters
F.W. Taylor Scientific Management - With Appropriate Sections

Next Chapter
5. Scientific Management - Introduction

Article part of
July - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

Soldiering and Its Causes - F.W. Taylor in Scientific Management

These principles appear to be so self-evident that many men may think it almost childish to state them. Let us, however, turn to the facts, as they actually exist in this country and in England. The English and American peoples are the greatest sportsmen in the world. Whenever an American workman plays baseball, or an English workman plays cricket, it is safe to say that he strains every nerve to secure victory for his side. He does his very best to make the largest possible number of runs. The universal sentiment is so strong that any man who fails to give out all there is in him in sport is branded as a "quitter," and treated with contempt by those who are around him.

When the same workman returns to work on the following day, instead of using every effort to turn out the largest possible amount of work, in a majority of the cases this man deliberately plans to do as little as he safely can to turn out far less work than he is well able to do in many instances to do not more than one-third to one-half of a proper day's work. And in fact if he were to do his best to turn out his largest possible day's work, he would be abused by his fellow-workers for so doing, even more than if he had proved himself a "quitter" in sport. Under working, that is, deliberately working slowly so as to avoid doing a full day's work, "soldiering," as it is called in this country, "hanging it out," as it is called in England, "ca canae," as it is called in Scotland, is almost universal in industrial establishments, and prevails also to a large extent in the building trades; and the writer asserts without fear of contradiction that this constitutes the greatest evil with which the working-people of both England and America are now afflicted.

It will be shown later in this paper that doing away with slow working and "soldiering" in all its forms and so arranging the relations between employer and employs that each workman will work to his very best advantage and at his best speed, accompanied by the intimate cooperation with the management and the help (which the workman should receive) from the management, would result on the average in nearly doubling the output of each man and each machine. What other reforms, among those which are being discussed by these two nations, could do as much toward promoting prosperity, toward the diminution of poverty, and the alleviation of suffering? America and England have been recently agitated over such subjects as the tariff, the control of the large corporations on the one hand, and of hereditary power on the other hand, and over various more or less socialistic proposals for taxation, etc. On these subjects both peoples have been profoundly stirred, and yet
hardly a voice has been raised to call attention to this vastly greater and more important subject of "soldiering," which directly and powerfully affects the wages, the prosperity, and the life of almost
every working-man, and also quite as much the prosperity of every industrial, establishment in the nation.

The elimination of "soldiering" and of the several causes of slow working would so lower the cost of production that both our home and foreign markets would be greatly enlarged, and we could compete on more than even terms with our rivals. It would remove one of the fundamental causes for dull times, for lack of employment, and for poverty, and therefore would have a more permanent and far-reaching effect upon these misfortunes than any of the curative remedies that are now being used to
soften their consequences. It would insure higher wages and make shorter working hours and better working and home conditions possible.

Why is it, then, in the face of the self-evident fact that maximum prosperity can exist only as the result of the determined effort of each workman to turn out each day his largest possible day's work, that the great majority of our men are deliberately doing just the opposite, and that even when the men have the best of intentions their work is in most cases far from efficient?

There are three causes for this condition, which may be briefly summarized as:

First. The fallacy, which has from time immemorial been almost universal among workmen, that a material increase in the output of each man or each machine in the trade would result in the end in throwing a large number of men out of work.

Second. The defective systems of management which are in common use, and which make it necessary for each workman to soldier, or work slowly, in order that he may protect his own best interests.

Third. The inefficient rule-of-thumb methods, which are still almost universal in all trades, and in practicing which our workmen waste a large part of their effort.

This paper will attempt to show the enormous gains which would result from the substitution by our workmen of scientific for rule-of-thumb methods.

To explain a little more fully these three causes:

First. The great majority of workmen still believe that if they were to work at their best speed they would be doing a great injustice to the whole trade by throwing a lot of men out of work, and yet the history of the development of each trade shows that each improvement, whether it be the invention of a new machine or the introduction of a better method, which results in increasing the productive capacity of the men in the trade and cheapening the costs, instead of throwing men out of work make
in the end work for more men.

The cheapening of any article in common use almost immediately results in a largely increased demand for that article. Take the case of shoes, for instance. The introduction of machinery for doing every element of the work which was formerly done by hand has resulted in making shoes at
a fraction of their former labor cost, and in selling them so cheap that now almost every man, woman, and child in the working-classes buys one or two pairs of shoes per year, and wears shoes all the time, whereas formerly each workman bought perhaps one pair of shoes every five years, and went barefoot most of the time, wearing shoes only as a luxury or as a matter of the sternest necessity. In spite of the enormously increased output of shoes per workman, which has come with shoe machinery, the demand for shoes has so increased that there are relatively more men working in the shoe industry now than ever before.

The workmen in almost every trade have before them an object lesson of this kind, and yet, because they are ignorant of the history of their own trade even, they still firmly believe, as their fathers did before them, that it is against their best interests for each man to turn out each day as much work as possible.

Under this fallacious idea a large proportion of the workmen of both countries each day deliberately work slowly so as to curtail the output. Almost every labor union has made, or is contemplating making, rules which have for their object curtailing the output of their members, and those men who have the greatest influence with the working-people, the labor leaders as well as many people with philanthropic feelings who are helping them, are daily spreading this fallacy and at the same time
telling them that they are overworked.

A great deal has been and is being constantly said about "sweat-shop" work and conditions. The writer has great sympathy with those who are overworked, but on the whole a greater sympathy for those who are under paid. For every individual, however, who is overworked, there are a
hundred who intentionally under work--greatly under work--every day of their lives, and who for this reason deliberately aid in establishing those conditions which in the end inevitably result in low wages. And yet hardly a single voice is being raised in an endeavor to correct this evil.

As engineers and managers, we are more intimately acquainted with these facts than any other class in the community, and are therefore best fitted to lead in a movement to combat this fallacious idea by educating not only the workmen but the whole of the country as to the true facts. And yet we are practically doing nothing in this direction, and are leaving this field entirely in the hands of the labor agitators (many of whom are misinformed and misguided), and of sentimentalists who are ignorant as to actual working conditions.

Second. As to the second cause for soldiering--the relations which exist between employers and employees under almost all of the systems of management which are in common use--it is impossible in a few words to make it clear to one not familiar with this problem why it is that the ignorance of employers as to the proper time in which work of various kinds should be done makes it for the interest of the workman to "soldier."

The writer therefore quotes herewith from a paper read before The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, in June, 1903, entitled "Shop Management," which it is hoped will explain fully this cause for soldiering:

"This loafing or soldiering proceeds from two causes. First, from the natural instinct and tendency of men to take it easy, which may be called natural soldiering. Second, from more intricate second thought and reasoning caused by their relations with other men, which may be called systematic soldiering."

"There is no question that the tendency of the average man (in all walks of life) is toward working at a slow, easy gait, and that it is only after a good deal of thought and observation on his part or as a result of example, conscience, or external pressure that he takes a more rapid pace."

"There are, of course, men of unusual energy, vitality, and ambition who naturally choose the fastest gait, who set up their own standards, and who work hard, even though it may be against their best interests. But these few uncommon men only serve by forming a contrast to emphasize the tendency of the average."

"This common tendency to 'take it easy' is greatly increased by bringing a number of men together on similar work and at a uniform standard rate of pay by the day."

"Under this plan the better men gradually but surely slow down their gait to that of the poorest and least efficient. When a naturally energetic man works for a few days beside a lazy one, the logic of the situation is unanswerable."

"Why should I work hard when that lazy fellow gets the same pay that I do and does only half as much work?"

"A careful time study of men working under these conditions will disclose facts which are ludicrous as well as pitiable."

"To illustrate: The writer has timed a naturally energetic workman who, while going and coming from work, would walk at a speed of from three to four miles per hour, and not infrequently trot home after a day's work. On arriving at his work he would immediately slow down to a speed of about one mile an hour. When, for example, wheeling a loaded wheelbarrow, he would go at a good fast pace even up hill in order to be as short a time as possible under load, and immediately on the return walk slow down to a mile an hour, improving every opportunity for delay short of actually sitting down. In order to be sure not to do more than his lazy neighbor, he would actually tire himself in his effort to go

"These men were working under a foreman of good reputation and highly thought of by his employer, who, when his attention was called to this state of things, answered: 'Well, I can keep them from sitting down, but the devil can't make them get a move on while they are at work.'"

"The natural laziness of men is serious, but by far the greatest evil from which both workmen and employers are suffering is the systematic soldiering which is almost universal under all of the ordinary schemes of management and which results from a careful study on the part of the
workmen of what will promote their best interests."

"The writer was much interested recently in hearing one small but experienced golf caddy boy of twelve explaining to a green caddy, who had shown special energy and interest, the necessity of going slow and lagging behind his man when he came up to the ball, showing him that since they were paid by the hour, the faster they went the less money they got, and finally telling him that if he went too fast the other boys would give him a licking."

"This represents a type of systematic soldiering which is not, however, very serious, since it is done with the knowledge of the employer, who can quite easily break it up if he wishes."

"The greater part of the systematic soldiering, however, is done by the men with the deliberate object of keeping their employers ignorant of how fast work can be done."

"So universal is soldiering for this purpose that hardly a competent workman can be found in a large establishment, whether he works by the day or on piece work, contract work, or under any of the ordinary systems, who does not devote a considerable part of his time to studying just how slow he can work and still convince his employer that he is going at a good pace."

"The causes for this are, briefly, that practically all employers determine upon a maximum sum which they feel it is right for each of their classes of employees to earn per day, whether their men work by
the day or piece."

"Each workman soon finds out about what this figure is for his particular case, and he also realizes that when his employer is convinced that a man is capable of doing more work than he has done, he
will find sooner or later some way of compelling him to do it with little or no increase of pay."

"Employers derive their knowledge of how much of a given class of work can be done in a day from either their own experience, which has frequently grown hazy with age, from casual and unsystematic observation of their men, or at best from records which are kept, showing the quickest time in which each job has been done. In many cases the employer will feel almost certain that a given job can be done faster than it has been, but he rarely cares to take the drastic measures necessary to force men to do it in the quickest time, unless he has an actual record proving conclusively how fast the work can be done."

"It evidently becomes for each man's interest, then, to see that no job is done faster than it has been in the past. The younger and less experienced men are taught this by their elders, and all possible
persuasion and social pressure is brought to bear upon the greedy and selfish men to keep them from making new records which result in temporarily increasing their wages, while all those who come after them are made to work harder for the same old pay."

"Under the best day work of the ordinary type, when accurate records are kept of the amount of work done by each man and of his efficiency, and when each man's wages are raised as he improves, and those who fail to rise to a certain standard are discharged and a fresh supply of carefully selected men are given work in their places, both the natural loafing and systematic soldiering can be largely broken up. This can only be done, however, when the men are thoroughly convinced that there
is no intention of establishing piece work even in the remote future, and it is next to impossible to make men believe this when the work is of such a nature that they believe piece work to be practicable. In most cases their fear of making a record which will be used as a basis for
piece work will cause them to soldier as much as they dare."

"It is, however, under piece work that the art of systematic soldiering is thoroughly developed; after a workman has had the price per piece of the work he is doing lowered two or three times as a result of his having worked harder and increased his output, he is likely entirely to lose sight of his employer's side of the case and become imbued with a grim determination to have no more cuts if soldiering can prevent it. Unfortunately for the character of the workman, soldiering involves a deliberate attempt to mislead and deceive his employer, and thus upright and straightforward workmen are compelled to become more or less hypocritical. The employer is soon looked upon as an antagonist, if not an enemy, and the mutual confidence which should exist between a leader and his men, the enthusiasm, the feeling that they are all working for the same end and will share in the results is entirely lacking.

"The feeling of antagonism under the ordinary piece-work system becomes in many cases so marked on the part of the men that any proposition made by their employers, however reasonable, is looked upon with suspicion, and soldiering becomes such a fixed habit that men will frequently take pains to restrict the product of machines which they are running when even a large increase in output would involve no more work on their part."

Third. As to the third cause for slow work, considerable space will later in this paper be devoted to illustrating the great gain, both to employers and employees, which results from the substitution of
scientific for rule-of-thumb methods in even the smallest details of the work of every trade. The enormous saving of time and therefore increase in the output which it is possible to effect through eliminating unnecessary motions and substituting fast for slow and inefficient motions for the men working in any of our trades can be fully realized only after one has personally seen the improvement which results from a thorough motion and time study, made by a competent man.

To explain briefly: owing to the fact that the workmen in all of our trades have been taught the details of their work by observation of those immediately around them, there are many different ways in common use for doing the same thing, perhaps forty, fifty, or a hundred ways of doing each act in each trade, and for the same reason there is a great variety in the implements used for each class of work. Now, among the various methods and implements used in each element of each trade there
is always one method and one implement which is quicker and better than any of the rest.

And this one best method and best implement can only be discovered or developed through a scientific study and analysis of all of the methods and implements in use, together with accurate, minute, motion and time study. This involves the gradual substitution of science for rule of
thumb throughout the mechanic arts.