Wednesday, February 28, 2018

February - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan






February 1st Week


The Nature of Organizing - Review Notes
Departmentation in Organizations - Review Notes



Line-Staff Authority and Decentralization - Review Notes
Effective Organizing and Organizational Culture - Review Notes



Summary - Principles - Organizing
Human Resource Management and Selection




Performance Appraisal and Career Strategy
Manager and Organization Development



Summary - Principles - Staffing
Resourcing; A Function of Management


Feb 2nd week



Human Factors and Motivation
Leadership - Koontz and O'Donnell - Review Notes






Supervision - Introduction - Public Administration Point of View
Committes and Group Decision Making - Review Notes




Communication - Koontz and O'Donnell - Review Notes
Summary of Principles - Directing - Leading



The System and Process of Controlling - Review Notes
Control Techniques and Information Technology




Productivity Control
Overall Control and Preventive Control - Review Notes

Feb 3rd Week



Summary - Principles of Controlling
Global and Comparative Management



Organizing - Global Management Issues - Review Notes
Staffing - Global Management Issues



Leading - Global Management Challenges
Controlling - Global Management Challenges - Review Notes



Management and Entrepreneurship: Science, Theory and Practice
Managerial Skills



Principles of Management - List
Principles of Management - Subject Update Articles Recent Years


February 4th Week


Marketing Management Revision Articles


The Marketing Concept Kotler
Marketing Strategy - Marketing Process - Kotler's Description



Scanning of Environment for Marketing Ideas and Decisions
Marketing Strategy - Differentiating and Positioning the Market Offering



Management of Marketing Department and Function
Marketing Research and Market Demand Forecasting


Consumer Behavior
Analysis of Consumer Markets


Organizational Buying Processes and Buying Behavior
Market Segmentation and Selection of Target Segments



One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan


January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December


Updated 3 February 2018
16 February 2016

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Wednesday, February 21, 2018

High Productivity Through Smart Factories - Industry 4.0 - Bulletin Board

Productivity  - Productivity Science - Productivity Engineering - Productivity Management




Productivity Science



Productivity Engineering



Productivity Management


2018

Future of Driverless Vehicles
https://www.slideshare.net/TomVge/itf-brown-bag-lunch-presentation-on-vehicle-automation

https://www.itf-oecd.org/


Tidfore and FLSmidth cooperate in bulk material handling equipment intelligentizing
2016-03-17
http://en.tidfore.com/news/251256.htm


Innovations for the Digital Production of the Future - Volkswagen
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Siemens CEO on Industry 4.0
https://www.strategy-business.com/article/Siemens-CEO-Joe-Kaeser-on-the-Next-Industrial-Revolution?gko=efd41

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Cube Automation
http://www.cubeautomation.com/index.cfm/1,212,0,0,html/Smart-Factoree-Overview

FORCAM GmbH
We Deliver Results in Productivity
http://www.forcam.com/en

T-Systems
https://www.t-systems.com/in/en/industries/automotive/scm-solutions/smart-factory/the-future-of-production-473818

Industry 4.0 and Smart Factory Logistics by Bossard
Proven Productivity
http://provenproductivity.com/industry-4-0-and-smart-factory-logistics/

2017

Smart Machines

Smart Vertical Center - a compact machine designed for high - performance and unsurpassed value
The Smart series are designed for high productivity, compact design and environmental considerations. They provide high efficiency machining thanks to the No. 40 taper spindle with maximum spindle speed of 12000 rpm and high speed feed rates.
https://english.mazak.jp/machines/vertical-center-smart-430a/


Smart Chocolate Factory: increased productivity and quality - Bühler
April 2017

Smart Chocolate Factory: increased productivity and quality
It is increasingly important for chocolate producers that their plants operate at full capacity. At the Interpack trade show, Bühler is demonstrating how the use of digital services and IoT technologies offers significant gains in efficiency: "With more intelligent process control, we can further improve productivity and achieve even more consistency in product quality,"
https://event.buhlergroup.com/news-updates/smart-chocolate-factory-increased-productivity-and-quality-110/

2016

The Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, South Korea (MOTIE) announced on March 10, 2016 that it has assisted in the construction of smart factories in 1,240 small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Smart factories are  defined as facilities that are fully automated based on information technology. The smart facilities have improved the SMEs’  productivity by approximately 25%.

http://businesskorea.co.kr/english/news/industry/14073-smart-benefits-smart-factories-improving-productivity-smes


2015

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Published on 3 Dec 2015
MES can improve your shop floor productivity by over 30%. FORCAM MES relies on real-time data processing and machine data collection in order to identify potential of optimisation. User-friendly reports and visaulisation help you monitor work orders throughout the manufacturing process and keep trace all production related data. The Smart Data generated ensures that you can stay pro-active and make sure production is on track and up to the quality standards your customers expect.



2008
Smart Factory - A Step towards the Next Generation of Manufacturing

Lucke D., Constantinescu C., Westkämper E. (2008) Smart Factory - A Step towards the Next Generation of Manufacturing. In: Mitsuishi M., Ueda K., Kimura F. (eds) Manufacturing Systems and Technologies for the New Frontier. Springer, London
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-84800-267-8_23


PDF Files

Smart Manufacturing Leadership Council
Building the Science of Manufacturing Enterprise, 2011

Smart Process Manufacturing
https://smartmanufacturingcoalition.org/sites/default/files/spm-workshop-report.pdf
(More files on this site)

Smart Factory - Mobile Computing
Bauer

Factory of Tomorrow will be Smart - Intel


Updated 2018 - 22 February, 8 January 2018,
12 December 2017, 12  July  2017


Tuesday, February 20, 2018

Artificial Intelligence - A Note for Industrial Engineers for Industrial Engineering 4.0 (IE 4.0)



Artificial Intelligence (AI) is explained by PWC as  a collective term for computer systems that can sense their environment, think, learn, and take action in response to what they’re sensing and
their objectives.

 AI is in use today in actual devices or systems like digital assistants, chatbots and machine learning
amongst others.

The intelligence included in AI can be categorized as:

Automated intelligence: Automation of manual/cognitive and routine/nonroutine
tasks.
Assisted intelligence: Helping people to perform tasks faster and better.
Augmented intelligence: Helping people to make better decisions.
Autonomous intelligence: Automating decision making processes without human intervention.

More AI innovations are likely to come out of the research lab and the transformational possibilities are staggering based on the various research and development proposals announced or indicated.

PWC Report on AI
2017

Sizing the prize: What’s the real value of AI for your business and how can you capitalise?

https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/issues/analytics/assets/pwc-ai-analysis-sizing-the-prize-report.pdf

Monday, February 19, 2018

Industry 4.0 - A Note for Industrial Engineers for Industrial Engineering 4.0 (IE 4.0)


Prof, Dariusz Plinta edited a  book collection of articles, "Advanced Industrial Engineering: Industry 4.0" and it is published by in Bielsko-Biała 2016.

He indicates that Advanced Industrial Engineering (AIE) is a major direction of current and future
Industrial engineering development in line with technological developments taking place in Europe.  AIE arises from the productivity assessment and improvement  needs of applying new innovative technologies to create better position of production companies in global and knowledge-based society. Productivity solutions for the evolving industry need a new perspective and the collection of articles in an attempt to provide the early inputs.

Industry 4.0 is a concept which is being developed very intensively in Europe especially in industrial advanced countries and more and more of its components are being developed and implemented now in production systems.  Changes are taking place in  different areas of organization's operations, with the impetus for change coming from  IT developments. The redesign of production and other engineering processes and products are driving innovation (new products and services) and improvements in productivity and quality. Therefore, the industrial revolution termed Industry 4.0  provides opportunities for companies to innovate both new products and processes. Every managers of engineering company has to notice that  some companies have already introduced them in market.

Industry 4.0 Concept




The Industry 4.0 concept was presented in 2011.  In the first publications, the most important new
 technological developments that were responsible for the emergence of revolutionary changes in engineering processes and products  were indicated.  These are:

a) Autonomous Robots,
b) Simulations and Forecasting Techniques
c) Vertical/Horizontal Software Integration
d) Industrial Internet of Things – IoT
e) Direct communication between machines
f) Internet of Services
g) Big data and analytics
h) Innovative methods of collecting and processing large amounts of data, including
the use of potential activities in the cloud (Clouds)
i) Additive Manufacturing
j) Augmented Reality – AR
k) Virtual Reality – VR
l) Cyber-Physical Systems – CPS
m) Digital Twin
n) Artificial Intelligence,
o) Neural Networks
p) Cybersecurity
q) Mass Customization

There technologies have to be incorporated into new software systems used for designing, testing,
process planning, manufacturing and assembly.

The evolution of production systems  follows the development of innovative technology and its direct environment, like machines, devices, methods and tools aiding the work related to preparing technical documentation, including description of product models, processes and production resources. The evolution or innovation in production systems provides  introduction of shorter production cycles, new products and manufacturing processes development, minimization of the supplies level, more efficient logistics, and the usage of effective and innovative ideas of production realization.

The main types of software used in production enterprises are linked in PLM solutions, which control different parts of the manufacturing cycle. CAD systems define what will be produced, Manufacturing Process Management (MPM) defines how it will be manufactured, ERP informs when and where it is created, whereas MES provides shop floor control and simultaneously manufacturing feedback. The stored information generally aids communication and improves making decisions, but also removes human errors from the design and the manufacturing process.

More detailed notes on Each Technology are presented as separate notes.


c) Vertical/Horizontal Software Integration
d) Industrial Internet of Things – IoT
e) Direct communication between machines
f) Internet of Services
g) Big data and analytics
h) Innovative methods of collecting and processing large amounts of data, including
the use of potential activities in the cloud (Clouds)
i) Additive Manufacturing
j) Augmented Reality – AR
k) Virtual Reality – VR
l) Cyber-Physical Systems – CPS
m) Digital Twin
n) Artificial Intelligence,
o) Neural Networks
p) Cybersecurity
q) Mass Customization



BCG - BUILDING BLOCKS OF INDUSTRY 4.0 -  NINE TECHNOLOGIES


In BCG's view nine  technology trends form the building blocks of Industry 4.0.

BIG DATA AND ANALYTICS

The collection and comprehensive evaluation of data from many different sources— Various machines, equipment, material handling trucks and communication devices, and business process systems will become provide significant extra support to increse revenues and decrease costs by supporting  real-time decision making as well as finding the best ways of doing things.

AUTONOMOUS ROBOTS

Robots are becoming more autonomous and mobile as their ability to work safely side by side with humans is increasing. Robots learning process is also changing with the developments in machine learning theory and practice. The robots are also being made available at lower and lower prices with  greater range of capabilities than those used in manufacturing today. Hence robotization of manufacturing is occurring.

SIMULATION

Simulations can be used more extensively in plant operations by feeding  real-time data and experimenting on the  virtual model that mirrors the physical world. The model can include machines, products, and humans. This will make possible optimization the machine settings very quickly even  for the next product in line thus driving down machine setup times. The quality is also improved as root causes can be eliminated as identification can be done very quickly on the simulated model.



THE INDUSTRIAL INTERNET OF THINGS

Industrial Internet of Things (IIOT) consists of connections between devices both consumer and production that can pass on information and instruction between themselves.  This will allow field devices to communicate and interact both with one another and with more centralized controllers, as necessary. As the processing of information can be done very fast based on fast communication without human intervention, real time responses are possible minimizing waste and increasing optimum working conditions. The IIOT can facilitate decentralize analytics and decision making and also allow centralized analytics and decision making.

HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL SYSTEM INTEGRATION

The integration capability provided by communication, analysis and action technologies will make companies, departments, functions, and capabilities much more cohesive. The cross-company, universal data-integration networks evolve and they enable automated value chains also.

CYBERSECURITY

There are developments in security technologies that can assure users that  the increased connectivity and use of standard communications protocols that come with Industry 4.0 does not increase the risk significantly. The risk dimension is recognized by the Industry 4.0 proponents and research and engineering efforts are being made to reduce the threats.

THE CLOUD

Development in clould storage and application capabilities are providing computing facility at a less and less cost to users. Users can utlize analytics services on vast data as they pay for the facility on a use basis only. The shared facility provides them service as well as security of data. The performance of cloud technologies is improving providing reaction times of just several milliseconds. As a result, machine data and functionality are being be deployed to the cloud. Successes of pioneer companies in this environment,  enables  more organizations to take up data-driven services for production systems.

ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

Companies have just begun to adopt additive manufacturing ( 3-D printing). It became popular in preparing prototypes and some companies started producing even regualr production components. With Industry 4.0, where designs can be transferred to additive manufacturing devices anywhere in teh world,  these additive-manufacturing methods will be more widely used to produce small batches of customized products. Spare parts etc. can be made on demand through additive manufacturing at the users premises by the user.

AUGMENTED REALITY

Augmented-reality-based systems can be used to send repair instructions and provide practice to technicians over mobile devices. These systems are currently in their infancy. But their potential is high to provide workers with real-time information to improve decision making and work procedures thus providing faster responses to various unforeseen events in engineering systems. Waiting for an expert or knowledgeable technician to come will come down as local technicians can be trained very quick using augmented reality systems as and when the need arises.


Industrial engineers have to understand each of the technologies that are forming part of the Industry 4.0 revolution. They have to understand that engineering potential and also productivity potential. In diverse combinations, they may be more effective than when they are used alone. Research needs to be done industrial engineers to understand their productivity potential and productivity pathways related to each technology and various bundles. Then only, they can carry out systematic productivity engineering and management. In the coming posts, each technology will be explained from the perspective of industrial engineering.

https://www.bcg.com/capabilities/operations/embracing-industry-4.0-rediscovering-growth.aspx (Accessed on 9 January 2018)

https://www.bcg.com/en-in/publications/2015/engineered_products_project_business_industry_4_future_productivity_growth_manufacturing_industries.aspx  (Visited on 9 January 2018)


Chapter of the Blog Book - Industrial Engineering 4.0 - IE in the Era of Industry 4.0 - Blog Book


Previous Chapter - Introduction to Industrial Engineering 4.0


Next Chapter - Autonomous Robots - A Note for Industrial Engineers for Industrial Engineering 4.0 (IE 4.0)


Updated 2018 - 20 February 2018,  8 January 2018







Thursday, February 15, 2018

Concurrent Industrial Engineering





Concurrent Industrial Engineering
Concurrent Industrial Engineering is possible. IEs have to go into product development, process development,

pilot  plant design and first commercial plant design and make them more productive.

When industrial engineers work with the technologies under development and make them more productive even as

pilot plants and first commercial plants, we can say concurrent IE is taking place.

A technology under development - Artificial Photosynthesis - Bionic Leaf - Research and Development
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bwg5IhfS438


Interesting on concurrent engineering

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=zlt0BgAAQBAJ&pg=PA761#v=onepage&q&f=false

Wednesday, January 31, 2018

January - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan



BEST WISHES FOR HAPPY, PRODUCTIVE AND PROSPEROUS 2018


Professor K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao





                              Father of Industrial Engineering




                                        Frederick Taylor

                                                        Picture Source:
                                                        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Winslow_Taylor

Taylor - Narayana Rao Principles of Engineering were presented in the 2017 Annual Conference of IISE


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Industrial Engineering is a Management Discipline


Industrial Engineering is a Management Discipline with the foundation subject being Engineering. Its prime focus is engineering activity. Management two prime dimensions of performance are Effectiveness and Efficiency. Industrial Engineering is concerned with Efficiency, also referred to as Productivity,  Cost Reduction, Cost Optimization, Cost Effectiveness, and Resource Efficiency.

IE knowledge revision plan was started in 2014.  In the revision essential subjects and chapters from management will also be included along with industrial engineering techniques. Knowledge of management techniques should help industrial engineering professionals to know the importance of industrial engineering in management practice as a basic discipline and functional areas of management, to manage implementation of IE projects and IE departments and to take up line management careers at some point in their career on the way to become CEOs of the organizations.

The basic plan of the revision is that 40 articles at the rate of 2 articles per working day are to be read. That gives the flexibility to read them during the week end also it on any working day reading is skipped. The article may take around 10 minutes. Therefore on article in the morning session and one article in the evening session can be read. The basic purpose is to refresh the already known knowledge. New knowledge is provided as subject updates in different articles one for each subject included in the revision.

In the month of January 2018, the revision is planned to start from 15 January  providing for a good year end break.

Management theory clearly states that effectiveness and efficiency are two important or prime dimensions of management performance. Industrial engineering has its prime focus on efficiency and thus it provides managers with efficiency related services and makes sure that efficiency or productivity is high in organizations. In the course of pursing industrial engineering practice, some IEs may shift to full management roles if they make efforts in the meanwhile to learn additional knowledge and skills. Becoming a full manager can be a natural career progression for industrial engineers apart from becoming senior industrial engineers and growing up in the industrial engineering department up to chief industrial engineering officer of the company (CIEO).


January 3rd Week  15th to 19th, 2018




Development of Management Subject. Theory of Management developed over a long a period of time with periodic quantum jumps in thinking.
Scientific Management/Shop Management - F.W. Taylor Introduction

Industrial Management and General Management - Henri Fayol
Importance of Human Relations in Management - Elton Mayo and Rothelisberger (Insights from Psychology)

Organization as a Social Group (Insights of Sociologists)
Mathematical Models and Their Optimization

Control of Variation in Inputs and Outputs (Insights from Statistics)
Systems Approach in Management

Business Conceptualization (Insights from Economics, Engineering Economics, Managerial Economics, Industrial Economics)
Peter Drucker - Business Organization - Economic Function - Social Responsibility


January 4th Week   22 to 25,  2018

Global and Comparative Management
Management: Definition and Process


Process of Management
Planning: A Management Process


The Nature and Purpose of Planning - Review Notes
Objectives and Goals - Review Notes


Strategies, Policies, and Planning Premises - Review Notes
Business Firm and Society - The External Environment, Social Responsibility and Ethics - Review Notes


Decision Making - Review Notes
Summary - Principles of Planning



February - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan



One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December




Updated on  6 January 2018,  18 January 2017,  18 Jan 2016, Jan 2015

Saturday, January 27, 2018

Efficient Milking - Processes and Process Improvement



Efficient Cow Machine Milking
Newzealand
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An efficient milking routine is especially important in large herringbone systems that require two milkers.
https://www.dairynz.co.nz/milking/herringbone/efficient-milking-routine/